An Act to provide for the control of rents and evictions, and for the lease of vacant premises to Government, in certain areas in the States of Delhi and Ajmer.
BE it enacted by Parliament as follows :-
Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement
(1) This Act may be called the Delhi and Ajmer Rent Control Act, 1952.
(2) It extends to the areas specified in the First Schedule and may be extended by the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, to such other areas in the State of Delhi or Ajmer as may, from time to time, be specified in the notification:
Provided that the Central Government may, at anytime, by a like notification direct that it shall cease to be in force in any such area, and with effect from such date, as may be specified in the notification.
(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.
Section 2. Definitions
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(a) "fair rate" means the fair rate fixed under section 24 and includes the rate as revised under section 25;
(b) "hotel or lodging house" means a building or part of a building where lodging with or without board or other services is provided for a monetary consideration;
(c) "landlord" means a person who, for the time being is receiving, or is entitled to receive, the rent of any premises, whether on his own account or on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of, any other person or as a trustee, guardian or receiver for any other person or who would so receive the rent or be entitled to receive the rent, if the premises were let to a tenant;
(d) "lawful increase" means an increase in rent permitted under the provisions of this Act:
(e) "manager of a hotel" includes any person in charge of the management of the hotel;
(f) "owner of a lodging house" means a person who receives or is entitled to receive whether on his own account or on behalf of himself and others or as an agent or a trustee for any other person, any monetary consideration from any person on account of board, lodging or other services;
(g) "premises" means any building or part of a building which is, or is intended to be, let separately for use as a residence or for commercial use or for any other purpose, and includes-
(i) the garden, grounds and outhouses, if any, appertaining to such building or part of a building;
(ii) any furniture supplied by the landlord for use in such building or part of a building;
but does not include a room in a hotel or lodging house;
(h) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
(i) "standard rent", in relation to any premises, means,-
(i) where the standard rent has been fixed by the court under section 8, the rent so fixed; or
(ii) where the standard rent has not been fixed under section 8, the standard rent of the premises as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Second Schedule;
(j) "tenant" means any person by whom or on whose account rent is payable for any premises and includes such sub-tenants and other persons as have derived title under a tenant under the provisions of any law before the commencement of this Act.
Section 3. Act not to apply to certain premises
Nothing in this Act shall apply-
(a) to any premises belonging to the Government; or
(b) to any tenancy or other like relationship created by a grant from the government in respect of the premises taken on lease, or requisitioned, by the Government.
Section 4. Rent in excess of standard rent not recoverable
(1) Except where rent is liable to periodical increase by virtue of an agreement entered into before the 1st day of January, 1939 or where rent is payable under a lease entered into before the 1st day of January, 1939, which has not expired before the first day of the period for which the rent is claimed, no tenant shall, notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary, be liable to pay to his landlord for the occupation of any premises any amount in excess of the standard rent of the premises unless such amount is a lawful increase of the standard rent in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), any agreement for the payment of rent in excess of the standard rent shall be null and void and shall be construed as if it were an agreement for the payment of the standard rent only.
Section 5. Unlawful charges not to be claimed or received
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, no person shall claim or receive any rent in excess of the standard rent, notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary.
(2) No person shall, in consideration of the grant, continuance or renewal of a tenancy or sub-tenancy of any premises, claim or receive the payment of any premium, pugree, fine, advance or any other like sum in addition to the rent.
Explanation.-Receipt of rent in advance for a period not exceeding one month shall not be deemed to be an advance within the meaning of this section.
(3) It shall not be lawful for the tenant or any other person acting or purporting to act on behalf of the tenant or a sub-tenant to claim or receive any payment in consideration of the relinquishment of his tenancy or sub-tenancy, as the case may be, of any premises.
(4) Nothing in this section shall apply-
(a) to any payment made in pursuance of an agreement entered into before the 1st day of November, 1939; or
(b) to any payment made under an agreement by any person to a landlord for the purpose of financing the construction of the whole or part of any premises on the land belonging to the landlord, if one of the conditions of the agreement is that the landlord is to let to such person the whole or part of the premises when completed for the use of such person or any member of his family:
Provided that such payment does not exceed the amount of agreed rent for a period of five years of the whole or part of the premises to be let to such person.
Explanation.-For the purposes of clause (b) of this sub-section, a "member of the family" means, in the case of an undivided Hindu family, any member of such family and in the case of any other family, the husband, wife, son, daughter, father, mother, brother, sister or any other person dependent on him.
Section 6. Lawful increases of standard rent
(1) Where a landlord has at anytime, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, incurred expenditure for any improvement, addition or structural alteration in the premises, not being expenditure on decoration or tenantable repairs necessary or usual for such premises, and the cost of that improvement, addition or alteration has not been taken into account in determining the standard rent of the premises, the landlord may lawfully increase the standard rent per year by an amount not exceeding seven and a half per cent of such cost.
(2) Where a landlord pays in respect of the premises any charge for electricity or water consumed in the premises or any other charge levied by a local authority having jurisdiction on the area which is ordinarily payable by the tenant, he may recover from the tenant any amount so paid by him; but no landlord shall recover from the tenant whether by means of an increase in rent or otherwise the amount of any tax on building or land imposed in respect of the premises occupied by the tenant:
Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall affect the liability of any tenant under an agreement entered into before the 1st day of January, 1952, whether express or implied, to pay from time to time the amount of any such tax as aforesaid.
(3) Where a part of the premises let for use to a tenant has been sublet by him-
(a) the landlord may lawfully increase the rent payable by the tenant-
(i) in the case of any premises let for residential purposes, by an amount not exceeding twelve and one-half per cent.of the standard rent of the part sub-let;
(ii) in the case of any premises let for other purposes, by an amount not exceeding twenty-five per cent.of the standard rent of the part sub-let;
(b) the tenant may lawfully increase the rent payable by the sub-tenant-
(i) in the case of any premises let for residential purposes, by an amount not exceeding twenty-five per cent.of the standard rent of the part sub-let; and
(ii) in the case of any premises let for other purposes, by an amount not exceeding fifty per cent.of the standard rent of the part sub-let;
(c) the tenant shall, on being so requested in writing by the landlord, supply, within fourteen days of such request being made, a statement in writing giving full particulars of any sub-letting including the rent charged,
Section 7. Notice of increase of, or addition to, rent
(1) Where a landlord wishes to increase the rent of any premises, he shall give the tenant notice of his intention to make the increase and in so far as such increase is lawful under this Act, it shall be due and recoverable only in respect of the period of the tenancy after the end of the month in which the notice is given.
(2) Every notice under sub-section (1) shall be in writing signed by or on behalf of the landlord and given in the manner provided in section 106 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (Iv of 1882).
(3) For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that the provisions of this section apply equally to any increase in rent payable by the sub-tenant.
Section 8. Cases in which standard rent may be fixed by court
(1) In any of the following cases, namely:-
(a) where, for any reason whatsoever, any dispute arises between a landlord and the tenant regarding the amount of standard rent payable in respect of any premises in accordance with the provisions of the Second Schedule; or
(b) where, at any time on or after the 2nd day of June, 1944, any premises are first let and thereat at which they are let is, in the opinion of the court, unreasonable :
the court may, on an application made to it for the purpose or in any suit or proceeding, fix the standard rent at such an amount as, having regard to the provisions of this Act and the circumstances of the case, the court deems just.
(2) Where there is any dispute between the landlord and the tenant regarding the amount which is a lawful increase of the standard rent, the court may determine such amount.
(3) Where for any reason it is not possible to determine the standard rent of any premises on the principles set forth in the Second Schedule, the court may, on an application made to it for the purpose, determine the standard rent, and in so doing, shall have regard to the standard rent of similar premises in the same locality and other circumstances of the case.
(4) In fixing the standard rent of any premises under clause (b) of sub-section (1), the court shall fix an amount which appears to it to be reason able and no standard rent so fixed shall exceed seven and one-half per cent.of the reasonable cost of construction of such premises.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section, the "cost of construction", in respect of any premises, includes the market value of the land comprised in the premises at the time of the completion of such construction.
(5) The standard rent shall in all cases be fixed as for a tenancy of twelve months:
Provided that where any premises are let or re-let for a period of less than twelve months, the standard rent for such tenancy shall bear the same proportion to the annual standard rent as the period of tenancy bears to twelve months.
(6) Where the court determines the standard rent of any premises under this section, the court shall determine the standard rent of the premises in an unfurnished state, and may also determine an additional charge to be payable on account of any fittings or furniture supplied by the landlord and it shall be lawful for the landlord to recover such additional charge from the tenant.
(7) In every case in which the court determines the standard rent of any premises under this section, it shall specify a date from which the standard rent so determined shall be deemed to have effect :
Provided that in no case, the date so specified shall be earlier than six months prior to the date of filing of the application for the determination of the standard rent or, as the case may be, of the institution of the suit or proceeding in which the standard rent is determined.
Section 9. Fixation of interim rent by the court
If an application for fixing the standard rent or for determining the lawful increase of such rent is made under section 8, the court shall, as expeditiously as possible, make an order specifying the amount of the rent or the lawful increase to be paid by the tenant to the landlord pending the final decision of the application and shall appoint a date from which the rent or lawful increase so specified shall be deemed to have effect.
Section 10. Limitation of liability of middleman
No collector of rents or middleman shall be liable to pay to his principal, in respect of any premises, any sum by way of rental charges which exceeds the amount which he is entitled under this Act to realise from the tenant or tenants of the premises.
Section 11. Limitation for applications for fixation of standard rent
Any land lord or tenant may file an application to the court forfeiting the standard rent of the premises or for determining the lawful increase of such rent--
(a) in the case of any premises which were let, or in which the cause of action for lawful increase of rent arose, before the commencement of this Act, within six months from such commencement;
(b) in the case of any premises let after the commencement of this Act, within six months from the date on which it is so let; and
(c) in the case of any premises in which the cause of action for lawful increase of rent arises after the commencement of this Act, within six months from that date :
Provided that the court may entertain the application after the expiry of the said period of six months if it is satisfied that the applicant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the application in time.
Section 12. Refund of rent, premium, etc., not recoverable under this Act
Where any amount has been paid by any person whether before or after the commencement of this Act,-
(a) on account of rent, being an amount which is by reason of the provisions of this Act, not recoverable, or
(b) as premium, pugree, fine, advance or other like sum in addition to the rent, the receiving of which is prohibited under this Act,
the court may, on an application made to it in this behalf at anytime within a period of six months from the date of such payment, direct the landlord by whom or on whose behalf the amount was received to refund the amount to such person or, if such person is a tenant, direct that the amount so paid shall be deducted from the rent payable by the tenant to the landlord.