THE WORKING JOURNALISTS AND OTHER NEWSPAPER EMPLOYEES(CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ACT, 19551
[Act, No. 45 of 1955]
[20th December, 1955]
An Act to regulate certain conditions of service of working journalists and other persons employed in newspaper establishments.
be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:--
|1. Extended to Goa, Daman and Diu by Reg. 11 of 1963, section 3 and Sch. and to Pondicherry by Act 26 of 1968, section 3 and Schedule.|
Section 1. Short title and extent
(1) This Act may be called the1[Working Journalists and other Newspaper Employees] (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1955.
( 2 ) It extends to the whole of India2[* * *].
|1. Substituted by Act 60 of 1974, section 2, for "Working Journalists" w.e.f. 21-12-1974.|
2. The words "except the State of Jammu and Kashmir" omitted by Act 51 of 1970, section 2 and Schedule. w.e.f. 1-9-1971.
Section 2. Definitions
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,--
1 [(a)"Board" means--
(i) in relation to working journalists, the Wage Board constituted under section 9; and
(ii) in relation to non-journalist newspaper employees, the Wage Board constituted under section 13C;]
(b) "newspaper" means any printed periodical work containing public news or comments on public news and includes such other class of printed periodical work as may, from time to time, be notified in this behalf by the Central Government in the Official Gazette;
(c) "newspaper employee" means any working journalist, and includes any other person employed to do any work in, or in relation to, any newspaper establishment;
(d) "newspaper establishment" means an establishment under the control of any person or body of persons, whether incorporated or not, for the production or publication of one or more newspapers or for conducting any news agency or syndicate 2 [and includes newspaper establishments specified as one establishment under the schedule;
Explanation.--For the purposes of this clause,--
(a) different departments, branches and centres of newspaper establishments shall be treated as parts thereof;
(b) a printing press shall be deemed to be a newspaper establishment if the principal business thereof is to print newspaper;]
3 [(dd) "non-journalist newspaper employee" means a person employed to do any work in, or in relation to, any newspaper establishment, but does not include any such person who--
(i) is a working journalist, or
(ii) is employed mainly in a managerial or administrative capacity, or
(iii) being employed in a supervisory capacity, performs, either by the nature of the duties attached to his office or by reason of the powers vested in him, functions mainly of a managerial nature;]
(e) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;2 [(ee) "Tribunal" means--
(i) in relation to working journalists, the Tribunal constituted under section 13 AA; and(ii) in relation to non-journalist newspaper employees, the Tribunal constituted under section 13 DD;]
2 [(eee) "wages" means all remuneration capable of being expressed in terms of money, which would, if the terms of employment, expressed or implied, were fulfilled, be payable to a newspaper employee in respect of his employment or of work done in such employment, and includes--
(i) such allowances (including dearness allowance) as the newspaper employee is for the time being entitled to;
(ii) the value of any house accommodation, or of supply of light, water, medical ttendance or other amenity or of any service or of any concessional supply of foodgrains or other articles;(iii) any travelling concession,
but does not include--
(a) any bonus;
(b) any contribution paid or payable by the employer to any pension fund or provident fund or for the benefit of the newspaper employee under any law for the time being in force;
(c) any gratuity payable on the termination of his service.Explanation.--In this clause, the term "wages" shall also include new allowances, if any, of any description fixed from time to time.]
(f) "working journalist" means a person whose principal avocation is that of a journalist and 4 [who is employed as such, either whole-time or part-time, in, or in relation to, one or more newspaper establishments], and includes an editor, a leader-writer, news editor, sub-editor, feature-writer, copy-tester, reporter, correspondent, cartoonist, news-photographer and proof-reader, but does not include any such person who--
(i) is employed mainly in a managerial or administrative capacity, or
(ii) being employed in a supervisory capacity performs, either by the nature of the duties attached to his office or by reason of the powers vested in him, functions mainly of a managerial nature;
(g) all words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Act.
|1. Substituted by Act 60 of 1974, section 3, for clause (a) w.e.f. 21-12-1974.|
2. Inserted by Act 31 of 1989, section 2 w.e.f. 28-8-1989.
3. Inserted by Act 60 of 1974, section 3 w.e.f. 21-12-1974.
4. Substituted by Act 36 of 1981, section 2, for certain words w.e.f. 13-8-1980.
Section 3. Act 14 of 1947 to apply to working journalists
(1) The provisions of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), as in force for the time being, shall, subject to the modification specified in sub-section (2), apply to, or in relation to, working journalists as they apply to, or in relation to, workmen within the meaning of that Act.
(2) Section 25F of the aforesaid Act, in its application to working journalists, shall be construed as if in clause (a) thereof, for the period of notice referred to therein in relation to the retrenchment of a workman, the following periods of notice in relation to the retrenchment of a working journalist had been substituted, namely:--
(a) six months, in the case of an editor, and
(b) three months, in the case of any other working journalist;
Section 4. Special provisions in respect of certain cases of retrenchment
Where at any time between the 14th day of July, 1954, and the 12th day of March, 1955, any working journalist had been retrenched, he shall be entitled to receive from the employer--
(a) wages for one month at the rate to which he was entitled immediately before his retrenchment, unless he had been given one month's notice in writing before such retrenchment; and
(b) compensation which shall be equivalent to fifteen days' average pay for every completed year of service under that employer or any part thereof in excess of six months.
Section 5. Payment of gratuity
1 [5. Payment of gratuity
(a) any working journalist has been in continuous service, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, for not less than three years in any newspaper establishment, and-
(i) his services are terminated by the employer in relation to that newspaper establishment for any reason whatsoever, otherwise than as a punishment inflicted by way of disciplinary action; or
(ii) he retires from service on reaching the age of superannuation; or
(b) any working journalist has been in continuous service, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, for not less than ten years in any newspaper establishment, and he voluntarily resigns on or after the 1st day of July, 1961, from service in that newspaper establishment on any ground whatsoever other than on the ground of conscience; or
(c) any working journalist has been in continuous service, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, for not less than three years in any newspaper establishment, and he voluntarily resigns on or after the 1st day of July, 1961, from service in that establishment on the ground of conscience; or
(d) any working journalist dies while he is in service in any newspaper establishment,
the working journalist or, in the case of his death, his nominee or nominees or, if there is no nomination in force at the time of the death of the working journalist, his family, as the case may be, shall, without prejudice to any benefits or rights accruing under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), be paid, on such termination, retirement, resignation or death, by the employer in relation to that establishment gratuity which shall be equivalent to fifteen days' average pay for every completed year of service or any part thereof in excess of six months:
Provided that in the case of a working journalist referred to in clause (b), the total amount of gratuity that shall be payable to him shall not exceed twelve and half months' average pay:
Provided further that where a working journalist is employed in any newspaper establishment wherein not more than six working journalists were employed on any day of the twelve months immediately preceding the commencement of this Act, the gratuity payable to a working journalist employed in any such newspaper establishment for any period of service before such commencement shall not be equivalent to fifteen days' average pay for every completed year of service or any part thereof in excess of six months but shall be equivalent to--
(a) three days' average pay for every completed year of service or any part thereof in excess of six months, if the period of such past service does not exceed five years;
(b) five days' average pay for every completed year of service or any part thereof in excess of six months, if the period of such past service exceeds five years but does not exceed five years; and
(c) seven days' average pay for every completed year of service of any part thereof in excess of six months, If the period of such past service exceeds ten years.
Explanation.--For the purposes of this sub-section and sub-section (1) of section 17, "family" means--
(i) in the case of a male working journalist, his widow, children, whether married or unmarried, and his dependent parents and the widow and children of his deceased son:
Provided that a widow shall not be deemed to be a member of the family of the working journalist if at the time of his death she was not legally entitled to be maintained by him;
(ii) in the case of a female working journalist, her husband, children, whether married or unmarried, and the dependent parents of the working journalist or of her husband, and the widow and children of her deceased son:
Provided that if the working journalist has expressed her desire to exclude her husband from the family, the husband and his dependent parents shall not be deemed to be a pan of the working journalist's family, and in either of the above two cases, if the child of a working journalist or of a deceased son of a working journalist has been adopted by another person and if under the personal law of the adopter, adoption is legally recognised, such a child shall not be considered as a member of the family of the working journalist.
(2) Any dispute whether a working journalist has voluntarily resigned from service in any newspaper establishment on the ground of conscience shall be deemed to be an industrial dispute within the meaning of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), or any corresponding law relating to investigation and settlement of industrial disputes in force in any State.
(3) Where a nominee is a minor and the gratuity under sub-section (1) has become payable during his minority, it shall be paid to a person appointed under sub-section (3) of section 5A:
Provided that where there is no such person, payment shall be made to any guardian of the property of the minor appointed by a competent court or where no such guardian has been appointed, to either parent of the minor, or where neither parent is alive, to any other guardian of the minor:
Provided further that where the gratuity is payable to two or more nominees, and either or any of them dies, the gratuity shall be paid to the surviving nominee or nominees.
|1. Substituted by Act 65 of 1962, section 3, for section 5 w.e.f. 15-1-1963.|
Section 5A. Nomination by working journalist
1 5A. Nomination by working journalist
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force, or in any disposition, testamentary or otherwise in respect of any gratuity payable to a working journalist, where a nomination made in the prescribed manner purports to confer on any person the right to receive payment of the gratuity for the time being due to the working journalist, the nominee shall, on the death of the working journalist, become entitled to the gratuity and to be paid the sum due in respect thereof to the exclusion of all other persons, unless the nomination is varied or cancelled in the prescribed manner.
(2) Any nomination referred to in sub-section (1) shall become void if the nominee predeceases, or where there are two or more nominees, all the nominees predecease, the working journalist making the nomination.
(3) Where the nominee is a minor, it shall be lawful for the working journalist making the nomination to appoint any person in the prescribed manner to receive the gratuity in the event of his death during the minority of the nominee.]
|1. Inserted by Act 65 of 1962.|
Section 6. Hours of work
(1) Subject to any rules that may be made under this Act, no working journalist shall be required or allowed to work in any newspaper establishment for more than one hundred and forty-four hours during any period of four consecutive weeks, exclusive of the time for meals.
(2) Every working journalist shall be allowed during any period of seven consecutive days rest for a period of not less than twenty-four consecutive hours, the period between 10 P.M. and 6 A.M. being included therein.
Explanation.--For the purposes of this section, "week" means a period of seven days beginning at mid-night on Saturday.
Section 7. Leave
Without prejudice to such holidays, casual leave or other kinds of leave as may be prescribed, every working journalist shall be entitled to--
(a) earned leave on full wages for not less than one-eleventh of the period spent on duty;
(b) leave on medical certificate on one-half of the wages for not less than one-eighteenth of the period of service.
Section 8. Fixation or revision of rates of wages
1 [8. Fixation or revision of rates of wages
(1) The Central Government may, in the manner hereinafter provided,--
(a) fix rates of wages in respect of working journalists;
(b) revise, from time to time, a! such intervals as it may think fit, the rates of wages fixed under this section or specified in the order made under section 6 of the Working Journalists (Fixation of Rates of Wages) Act, 1958 (29 of 1958).
(2) The rates of wages may be fixed or revised by the Central Government in respect of working journalists for time work and for piece work.
|1. Substituted by Act 65 of 1962, section 4, for sections 8 to 13 w.e.f. 15-1-1963.|
Section 9. Procedure for fixing and revising rates of wages
1 [9.Procedure for fixing and revising rates of wages
For the purpose of fixing orrevising rates of wages in respect of working journalists under this Act, theCentral Government shall, as and when necessary, constitute a Wage Board whichshall consist of--
(a)2 [threepersons] representing employers in relation to newspaper establishments;
(b)2 [threepersons] representing working journalists;
(c)2 [fourindependent persons], one of whom shall be a person who is, or has been, aJudge of a High Court or the Supreme Court and who shall be appointed by thatGovernment as the Chairman thereof.
|1.Substituted by Act 65 of 1962, section 4, forsections 8 to 13 w.e.f. 15-1-1963.|
2.Substituted by Act 34 of 1996, section 2w.e.f. 28-9-1996.
Section 10. Recommendation by Board
(1) The Board shall, by notice published in such manner as it thinks fit, call upon newspaper establishments and working journalists and other persons interested in the fixation or revision of rates of wages of working journalists to make such representations as they may think fit as respects the rates of wages which may be fixed or revised under this Act in respect of working journalists.
(2) Every such representation shall be in writing and shall be made within such period as the Board may specify in the notice and shall state the rates of wages which, in the opinion of the person making the representation, would be reasonable, having regard to the capacity of the employer to pay the same or to any other circumstance, whichever may seem relevant to the person making the representation in relation to his representation.
(3) The Board shall take into account the representations aforesaid, if any, and after examining the materials placed before it make such recommendations as it thinks fit to the Central Government for the fixation or revision of rates of wages in respect of working journalists; and any such recommendation may specify, whether prospectively or retrospectively, the date from which the rates of wages should take effect.
(4) In making any recommendations to the Central Government, the Board shall have regard to the cost of living, the prevalent rates of wages for comparable employment, the circumstances relating to the newspaper industry in different regions of the country and to any other circumstances which to the Board may seem relevant.
1[Explanation.--For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that nothing in this subsection shall prevent the Board from making recommendations for fixation or revision of rates of wages on all India basis.]
|1. Added by Act 31 of 1989, section 3 w.e.f. 28-8-1989.|
Section 11. Powers and procedure of the Board
(1) Subject to the provisions contained in sub-sec(ion (2), the Board may exercise all or any of the powers which an Industrial Tribunal constituted under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), exercises for the adjudication of an industrial dispute referred to it and shall, subject to the provisions contained in this Act, and the rules, if any, made thereunder, have power to regulate its own procedure.
(2) Any representations made to the Board and any documents furnished to it by way of evidence shall be open to inspection on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, by any person interested in the matter.
(3) If, for any reason, a vacancy occurs in the office of Chairman or any other member of the Board, the Central Government shall fill the vacancy by appointing another person thereto in accordance with the provisions of section 9 and any proceeding may be continued before the Board so reconstituted from the stage at which the vacancy occurred.