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CALIFORNIA PENAL CODE

Last update: 2012-06-08


  • Preliminary Provisions. 2-24
  • PART 1. Of Crimes and Punishments
    • TITLE 1. Of Persons Liable to Punishment for Crime. 25-29
    • TITLE 2. Of Parties to Crime. 30-33
    • TITLE 3. Of Offenses Against the Sovereignty of the State. 37-38
    • TITLE 5. Of Crimes by and Against the Executive Power of the State 67-77
    • TITLE 6. Of Crimes Against the Legislative Power. 85-88
    • TITLE 7. Of Crimes Against Public Justice
      • CHAPTER 1. Bribery and Corruption. 92-100
      • CHAPTER 2. Rescues. 102
      • CHAPTER 3. Escapes and Aiding Therein. 107-110
      • CHAPTER 4. Forging, Stealing, Mutilating, and Falsifying Judicial and Public Records and Documents. 112-117
      • CHAPTER 5. Perjury and Subornation of Perjury. 118-131
      • CHAPTER 6. Falsifying Evidence, and Bribing, Influencing, Intimidating or Threatening Witnesses. 132-141
      • CHAPTER 7. Other Offenses Against Public Justice. 142-181
      • CHAPTER 8. Conspiracy. 182-185
      • CHAPTER 9. Criminal Profiteering. 186-186.8
      • CHAPTER 10. Money Laundering. 186.9-186.10
      • CHAPTER 10.5. Fraud and Embezzlement: Victim Restitution. 186.11-186.12
      • CHAPTER 11. Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act 186.20-186.33
    • TITLE 8. Of Crimes Against the Person
      • CHAPTER 1. Homicide. 187-199
      • CHAPTER 2. Mayhem. 203-206.1
      • CHAPTER 3. Kidnapping. 207-210
      • CHAPTER 3.5. Hostages. 210.5
      • CHAPTER 4. Robbery. 211-215
      • CHAPTER 5. Attempts to Kill. 217.1-219.3
      • CHAPTER 6. Assaults With Intent to Commit Felony, other than Assaults With Intent to Murder. 220-222
      • CHAPTER 8. False Imprisonment. 236-237
      • CHAPTER 9. Assault and Battery. 240-248
    • TITLE 9. Of Crimes Against the Person Involving Sexual Assault, and Crimes Against Public Decency and Good Morals
      • CHAPTER 1. Rape, Abduction, Carnal Abuse of Children, and Seduction. 261-269
      • CHAPTER 2. Abandonment and Neglect of Children. 270-273.75
      • CHAPTER 2.5. Spousal Abusers. 273.8-273.88
      • CHAPTER 4. Child Abduction. 277-280
      • CHAPTER 5. Bigamy, Incest, and the Crime Against Nature. 281-289.6
      • CHAPTER 5.5. Sex Offenders. 290-294
      • CHAPTER 6. Dna and Forensic Identification Data Base and Data Bank Act of 1998
        • Article 1. Purpose and Administration. 295-295.1
        • Article 2. Offenders Subject to Sample Collection. 296-296.2
        • Article 3. Data Base Applications. 297
        • Article 4. Collection and Forwarding of Samples. 298-298.3
        • Article 5. Expungement of Information. 299
        • Article 6. Limitations on Disclosure. 299.5-299.7
        • Article 7. Construction and Severability. 300-300.3
      • CHAPTER 7. Of Crimes Against Religion and Conscience, and other Offenses Against Good Morals. 302-310.5
      • CHAPTER 7.5. Obscene Matter. 311-312.7
      • CHAPTER 7.6. Harmful Matter. 313-313.5
      • CHAPTER 8. Indecent Exposure, Obscene Exhibitions, and Bawdy and other Disorderly Houses. 314-318.6
      • CHAPTER 9. Lotteries. 319-329
      • CHAPTER 10. Gaming. 330-337z
      • CHAPTER 10.5. Horse Racing. 337.1-337.9
      • CHAPTER 11. Pawnbrokers. 343
      • CHAPTER 12. Other Injuries to Persons. 346-367g
      • CHAPTER 13. Crimes Against Elders, Dependent Adults, and Persons With Disabilities. 368-368.5
    • TITLE 10. Of Crimes Against the Public Health and Safety. 369a-402c
    • TITLE 11. Of Crimes Against the Public Peace. 403-420.1
    • TITLE 11.5. Criminal Threats. 422-422.4
    • TITLE 11.6. Civil Rights
      • CHAPTER 1. Definitions. 422.55-422.57
      • CHAPTER 2. Crimes and Penalties. 422.6-422.865
      • CHAPTER 3. General Provisions. 422.88-422.93
    • TITLE 11.7. California Freedom of Access to Clinic and Church Entrances Act. 423-423.6
    • TITLE 12. Of Crimes Against the Revenue and Property of This State 424-440
    • TITLE 13. Of Crimes Against Property
      • CHAPTER 1. Arson. 450-457.1
      • CHAPTER 2. Burglary. 458-464
      • CHAPTER 3. Burglarious and Larcenous Instruments and Deadly Weapons. 466-469
      • CHAPTER 4. Forgery and Counterfeiting. 470-483.5
      • CHAPTER 5. Larceny. 484-502.9
      • CHAPTER 6. Embezzlement. 503-515
      • CHAPTER 7. Extortion. 518-527
      • CHAPTER 8. False Personation and Cheats. 528-539
      • CHAPTER 10. Crimes Against Insured Property and Insurers. 548-551
      • CHAPTER 12. Unlawful Interference With Property
        • Article 1. Trespassing or Loitering Near Posted Industrial Property. 552-555.5
        • Article 2. Unlawfully Placing Signs on Public and Private Property. 556-556.4
        • Article 3. Trespass on Property Belonging to the University of California. 558-558.1
      • CHAPTER 12.5. Crimes Involving Bailments. 560-560.6
      • CHAPTER 12.6. Crimes Involving Branded Containers, Cabinets, or other Dairy Equipment. 565-566
      • CHAPTER 12.7. Unlawful Subleasing of Motor Vehicles. 570-574
      • CHAPTER 14. Fraudulent Issue of Documents of Title to Merchandise 577-583
      • CHAPTER 15. Malicious Injuries to Railroad Bridges, Highways, Bridges, and Telegraphs. 587-593g
    • TITLE 14. Malicious Mischief. 594-625c
    • TITLE 15. Miscellaneous Crimes
      • CHAPTER 1. Schools. 626-626.11
      • CHAPTER 1.1. Access to School Premises. 627-627.10
      • CHAPTER 1.3. Massage Therapy. 628-628.5
      • CHAPTER 1.4. Interception of Wire, Electronic Digital Pager,or Electronic Cellular Telephone Communications. 629.50-629.98
      • CHAPTER 1.5. Invasion of Privacy. 630-638
      • CHAPTER 2. Of other and Miscellaneous Offenses. 639-653.2
      • CHAPTER 2.5. Loitering for the Purpose of Engaging in a Prostitution Offense. 653.20-653.28
      • CHAPTER 3. Immigration Matters. 653.55-653.61
      • CHAPTER 4. Crimes Committed While in Custody in Correctional Facilities. 653.75
    • TITLE 16. General Provisions. 654-678
    • TITLE 17. Rights of Victims and Witnesses of Crime. 679-680
  • PART 2. Of Criminal Procedure
    • Preliminary Provisions. 681-691
    • TITLE 1. Of the Prevention of Public Offenses
      • CHAPTER 1. Of Lawful Resistance. 692-694
      • CHAPTER 2. Of the Intervention of the Officers of Justice. 697-698
      • CHAPTER 3. Security to Keep the Peace. 701-714
      • CHAPTER 5. Suppression of Riots. 723-727
    • TITLE 2. Mode of Prosecution. 737-740
    • TITLE 2.5. Nightcourt. 750
    • TITLE 3. Additional Provisions Regarding Criminal Procedure
      • CHAPTER 1. Of the Local Jurisdiction of Public Offenses. 777-795
      • CHAPTER 2. Time of Commencing Criminal Actions. 799-805
      • CHAPTER 3. Complaints Before Magistrates. 806-810
      • CHAPTER 4. The Warrant of Arrest. 813-829
      • CHAPTER 4.2. Code Enforcement Officers. 829.5
      • CHAPTER 4.5. Peace Officers. 830-832.17
      • CHAPTER 5. Arrest, by Whom and How Made. 833-851.90
        • CHAPTER 5a. Uniform Act on Fresh Pursuit. 852-852.4
        • CHAPTER 5B. Interstate Jurisdiction
          • Article 1. Colorado River Crime Enforcement Compact. 853.1-853.2
          • Article 2. California-nevada Compact for Jurisdiction on Interstate Waters. 853.3-853.4
        • CHAPTER 5C. Citations for Misdemeanors. 853.5-853.85
        • CHAPTER 5D. Filing Complaint after Citation. 853.9
      • CHAPTER 6. Retaking after an Escape or Rescue. 854-855
      • CHAPTER 7. Examination of the Case, and Discharge of the Defendant, or Holding Him to Answer. 858-883
    • TITLE 4. Grand Jury Proceedings
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 888-892
      • CHAPTER 2. Formation of Grand Jury
        • Article 1. Qualifications of Grand Jurors. 893-894
        • Article 2. Listing and Selection of Grand Jurors. 895-902
        • Article 3. Jury Commissioners. 903.1-903.4
        • Article 4. Impaneling of Grand Jury. 904-913
      • CHAPTER 3. Powers and Duties of Grand Jury
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 914-924.6
        • Article 2. Investigation of County, City, and District Affairs 925-933.6
        • Article 3. Legal and other Assistants for Grand Juries. 934-938.4
        • Article 4. Conduct of Investigations. 939-939.91
    • TITLE 5. The Pleadings
      • CHAPTER 1. Finding and Presentment of the Indictment. 940-945
      • CHAPTER 2. Rules of Pleading. 948-973
    • TITLE 6. Pleadings and Proceedings Before Trial
      • CHAPTER 1. Of the Arraignment of the Defendant. 976-992
      • CHAPTER 2. Setting Aside the Indictment or Information. 995-999a
      • CHAPTER 2.2. Career Criminals. 999b-999h
      • CHAPTER 2.3. Repeat Sexual Offenders. 999i-999p
      • CHAPTER 2.4. Child Abusers. 999q-999y
      • CHAPTER 2.5. Special Proceedings in Narcotics and Drug Abuse Cases. 1000-1000.6
      • CHAPTER 2.6. Deferred Entry of Judgment Reentry Program. 1000.8-1000.10
      • CHAPTER 2.65. Child Abuse and Neglect Counseling. 1000.12-1000.17
      • CHAPTER 2.7. Misdemeanor Diversion. 1001-1001.9
      • CHAPTER 2.71. Aids Prevention Program in Drug Abuse and Prostitution Cases. 1001.10-1001.11
      • CHAPTER 2.75. Diversion Fees. 1001.15-1001.16
      • CHAPTER 2.8. Diversion of Defendants With Cognitive Developmental Disabilities. 1001.20-1001.34
      • CHAPTER 2.81. Pretrial Diversion of Traffic Violators. 1001.40
      • CHAPTER 2.9. Diversion of Misdemeanor Offenders. 1001.50-1001.55
        • CHAPTER 2.9A. Bad Check Diversion. 1001.60-1001.67
        • CHAPTER 2.9B. Parental Diversion. 1001.70-1001.75
      • CHAPTER 2.95. Diversion Restitution Fee. 1001.90
      • CHAPTER 3. Demurrer and Amendment. 1002-1012
      • CHAPTER 4. Plea. 1016-1027
      • CHAPTER 5. Transmission of Certain Indictments and Information. 1029
      • CHAPTER 6. Change of Venue. 1033-1038
      • CHAPTER 7. The Mode of Trial. 1041-1045
      • CHAPTER 8. Formation of the Trial Jury and Thecalendar of Issues for Trial. 1046-1051
      • CHAPTER 9. Postponement of the Trial. 1053
      • CHAPTER 10. Discovery. 1054-1054.10
    • TITLE 7. Of Proceedings after the Commencement of the Trial and Before Judgment
      • CHAPTER 1. Challenging the Jury. 1065-1089
      • CHAPTER 2. The Trial. 1093-1130
      • CHAPTER 3. Conduct of the Jury after the Cause Is Submitted to Them. 1137-1142
      • CHAPTER 4. The Verdict or Finding. 1147-1168
      • CHAPTER 4.5. Trial Court Sentencing
        • Article 1. Initial Sentencing. 1170-1170.9
      • CHAPTER 4.8. Pregnant and Parenting Women's Alternative Sentencing Program Act. 1174-1174.9
      • CHAPTER 5. Bills of Exception. 1176
      • CHAPTER 6. New Trials. 1179-1182
      • CHAPTER 7. Arrest of Judgment. 1185-1188
    • TITLE 8. Of Judgment and Execution
      • CHAPTER 1. The Judgment. 1191-1210.5
      • CHAPTER 1.4. Electronic Monitoring. 1210.7-1210.16
      • CHAPTER 1.5. Certification of Drug Diversion Programs. 1211
      • CHAPTER 2. The Execution. 1213-1227.5
      • CHAPTER 3. California Community Corrections Performance Incentives. 1228-1233.8
    • TITLE 9. Appeals in Felony Cases
      • CHAPTER 1. Appeals, When Allowed and How Taken, and the Effect Thereof. 1235-1246
        • CHAPTER 1a. Judicial Council Rules. 1247k
      • CHAPTER 2. Dismissing an Appeal for Irregularity. 1248
      • CHAPTER 3. Argument of the Appeal. 1252-1256
      • CHAPTER 4. Judgment Upon Appeal. 1258-1265
    • TITLE 10. Miscellaneous Proceedings
      • CHAPTER 1. Bail
        • Article 1. In What Cases the Defendant May Be Admitted to Bail. 1268-1276.5
        • Article 2. Bail Upon Being Held to Answer Before Indictment. 1277-1281a
        • Article 3. Bail Upon an Indictment Before Conviction. 1284-1289
        • Article 4. Bail on Appeal. 1291-1292
        • Article 5. Deposit Instead of Bail. 1295-1298
        • Article 6. Exoneration. 1300-1304
        • Article 7. Forfeiture of the Undertaking of Bail or of the Deposit of Money. 1305-1308
        • Article 8. Recommitment of the Defendant, after Having Given Bail or Deposited Money Instead of Bail. 1310-1317
        • Article 9. Procedure Relating to Release on Own Recognizance 1318-1319.5
        • Article 10. Violations. 1320-1320.5
      • CHAPTER 2. Who May Be Witnesses in Criminal Actions. 1321-1324.1
      • CHAPTER 3. Compelling the Attendance of Witnesses. 1326-1332
        • CHAPTER 3a. Attendance of Witnesses Outside the State. 1334-1334.6
      • CHAPTER 4. Examination of Witnesses Conditionally. 1335-1345
      • CHAPTER 4.5. Examination of Victims of Sexual Crimes. 1346-1347.5
      • CHAPTER 5. Examination of Witnesses on Commission. 1349-1362
      • CHAPTER 6. Inquiry Into the Competence of the Defendant Before Trial or after Conviction. 1367-1376
      • CHAPTER 7. Compromising Certain Public Offenses by Leave of the Court. 1377-1379
      • CHAPTER 8. Dismissal of the Action for Want of Prosecution or Otherwise. 1381-1388
      • CHAPTER 8.5. Agreement on Detainers. 1389-1389.8
      • CHAPTER 9. Proceedings Against Corporations. 1390-1397
      • CHAPTER 10. Entitling Affidavits. 1401
      • CHAPTER 11. Errors and Mistakes in Pleadings and other Proceedings. 1404-1405
      • CHAPTER 12. Disposal of Property Stolen or Embezzled. 1407-1413
      • CHAPTER 13. Disposition of Evidence in Criminal Cases. 1417-1417.9
      • CHAPTER 14. Disposition of Unclaimed Money Held by District Attorney or Court Clerk. 1420-1422
      • CHAPTER 15. Disqualification of Prosecuting Attorneys. 1424
    • TITLE 11. Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases and Appeals From Such Cases
      • CHAPTER 1. Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases. 1427-1465.8
      • CHAPTER 2. Appeals in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases. 1466-1469
      • CHAPTER 3. Transfer of Misdemeanor and Infraction Appeals. 1471
    • TITLE 12. Of Special Proceedings of a Criminal Nature
      • CHAPTER 1. Of the Writ of Habeas Corpus. 1473-1508
      • CHAPTER 2. Pretrial Review. 1510-1512
      • CHAPTER 3. Of Search Warrants. 1523-1542
      • CHAPTER 3.5. Disclosure of Medical Records to Law Enforcement Agencies. 1543-1545
      • CHAPTER 14. Proceedings Against Fugitives From Justice. 1547-1558
      • CHAPTER 5. Miscellaneous Provisions Respecting Special Proceedings of a Criminal Nature. 1562-1564
    • TITLE 13. Proceedings for Bringing Persons Imprisoned in the State Prison, or the Jail of Another County, Before a Court. 1567
    • TITLE 15. Outpatient Status for Mentally Disordered and Developmentally Disabled Offenders. 1600-1620
  • PART 3. Of Imprisonment and the Death Penalty
    • TITLE 1. Imprisonment of Male Prisoners in State Prisons
      • CHAPTER 1. Establishment of State Prisons
        • Article 1. California Institution for Men. 2000-2002
        • Article 2. California State Prison at San Quentin. 2020-2022
        • Article 3. California State Prison at Folsom. 2030-2032
        • Article 4. The Deuel Vocational Institution. 2035-2042
        • Article 4.5. California Correctional Center. 2043-2043.5
        • Article 5. Correctional Training Facility. 2045-2045.6
        • Article 5.5. California Correctional Institution in Monterey County. 2045.10-2045.11
        • Article 6. California Men's Colony. 2046-2046.6
        • Article 7. California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi 2048-2048.6
      • CHAPTER 2. Administration of State Prisons
        • Article 1. Miscellaneous Powers and Duties of Department and Director of Corrections. 2051-2065
        • Article 2. Wardens. 2078-2090
        • Article 6. Prohibition Upon Wardens, Clerks, Officers and Employees. 2540-2541
      • CHAPTER 3. Civil Rights of Prisoners
        • Article 1. Civil Rights. 2600-2602
        • Article 2. Prisoners as Witnesses. 2620-2626
        • Article 3. Sexual Abuse in Detention. 2635-2643
      • CHAPTER 4. Treatment of Prisoners
        • Article 1. Mistreatment of Prisoners. 2650-2657
        • Article 2. Organic Therapy. 2670-2680
        • Article 3. Disposition of Insane Prisoners. 2684-2685
        • Article 4. Temporary Removal of Prisoners. 2690-2692
        • Article 5. Substance Abuse Treatment. 2694
      • CHAPTER 5. Employment of Prisoners
        • Article 1. Employment of Prisoners Generally. 2700-2717
        • Article 1.5. Joint Venture Program. 2717.1-2717.9
        • Article 4. Employment at Road Camps. 2760-2772
        • Article 5. Employment in Public Parks, Forests, Etc.. 2780-2792
      • CHAPTER 6. Sale of Prison-made Goods
        • Article 1. Prison Industry Authority. 2800-2818
        • Article 2. Sale of Prison Goods Made Outside California. 2880-2891
      • CHAPTER 7. Execution of Sentences of Imprisonment
        • Article 1. Commencement of Term. 2900-2903
        • Article 1.5. Transfer of Prisoners. 2910-2913
        • Article 2.5. Credit on Term of Imprisonment. 2930-2935
        • Article 3. Blacklist or Extortion of Discharged Prisoner. 2947
        • Article 4. Disposition of Mentally Disordered Prisoners Upon Discharge. 2960-2981
      • CHAPTER 8. Length of Term of Imprisonment and Paroles
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 3000-3007
        • Article 1.5. Intensive Parole Supervision of Sex Offenders. 3008
        • Article 2. Electronic Monitoring. 3010-3010.9
        • Article 2.3. Parole Reentry Accountability Program. 3015
        • Article 2.5. Interdisciplinary Assessment of Inmates. 3020
        • Article 3. Discharge Upon Completion of Term. 3040-3073.1
        • Article 3.5. County Boards of Parole Commissioners. 3074-3089
      • CHAPTER 9. Prison to Employment. 3105
    • TITLE 2. Imprisonment of Female Prisoners in State Institutions
      • CHAPTER 1. Establishment of Institution for Women. 3200-3202
      • CHAPTER 2. Administration of Institution
        • Article 1. Administration of Institution for Women. 3325-3326
      • CHAPTER 3. Prisoners. 3400-3409
      • CHAPTER 4. Community Treatment Programs. 3410-3424
      • CHAPTER 5. Gender Responsive Programs. 3430
    • TITLE 2.05. Postrelease Community Supervision Act of 2011. 3450-3465
    • TITLE 2.1. Biomedical and Behaviorial Research
      • CHAPTER 1. Definitions. 3500
      • CHAPTER 2. General Provisions and Prohibitions. 3501-3509.5
      • CHAPTER 3. Administration. 3515-3520
      • CHAPTER 4. Prisoners' Rights as Research Subjects. 3521-3523
      • CHAPTER 5. Remedies. 3524
    • TITLE 2.3. Medical Parole. 3550
    • TITLE 3. Execution of Death Penalty
      • CHAPTER 1. Executing Death Penalty. 3600-3607
      • CHAPTER 2. Suspension of Execution of Death Penalty: Insanity: Pregnancy. 3700-3706
    • TITLE 4. County Jails, Farms and Camps
      • CHAPTER 1. County Jails. 4000-4030
      • CHAPTER 1.5. Joint County Jails. 4050-4067
      • CHAPTER 2. County Industrial Farms and Road Camps
        • Article 1. County Industrial Farms. 4100-4137
        • Article 2. Joint County Road Camp Act. 4200-4227
        • Article 3. Advisory Committees for Adult Detention Facilities 4300-4305
      • CHAPTER 2.5. Pilot Jail Industry Programs. 4325-4329
      • CHAPTER 3. Blood Donations. 4350-4351
    • TITLE 4.5. County Jail Capital Expenditure Bond Act of 1981
      • CHAPTER 1. Findings and Declarations. 4400-4401
      • CHAPTER 2. Fiscal Provisions. 4410-4422
    • TITLE 4.6. County Jail Capital Expenditure Bond Act of 1984
      • CHAPTER 1. Findings and Declarations. 4450-4451
      • CHAPTER 2. Fiscal Provisions. 4460-4471
    • TITLE 4.7. County Correctional Facility Capital Expenditure Bond Act of 1986
      • CHAPTER 1. Findings and Declarations. 4475-4476
      • CHAPTER 2. Fiscal Provisions. 4480-4495
    • TITLE 4.8. County Correctional Facility Capital Expenditure and Youth Facility Bond Act of 1988
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 4496-4496.04
      • CHAPTER 2. Program. 4496.10-4496.19
      • CHAPTER 3. Fiscal Provisions. 4496.30-4496.48
    • TITLE 4.85. County Correctional Facilities Capital Expenditure and Youth Facility Bond Act of 1988 Allocations
      • CHAPTER 1. General. 4497
      • CHAPTER 2. County Jails. 4497.02-4497.16
      • CHAPTER 3. Juvenile Facilities. 4497.20-4497.38
      • CHAPTER 4. Purchase of Correctional Industry Products for Correctional, Juvenile, and Youth Facilities. 4497.50-4497.56
    • TITLE 5. Offenses Relating to Prisons and Prisoners
      • CHAPTER 1. Offenses by Prisoners. 4500-4504
      • CHAPTER 2. Escapes and Rescues
        • Article 1. Escapes. 4530-4537
        • Article 2. Rescues. 4550
      • CHAPTER 3. Unauthorized Communications With Prisons and Prisoners. 4570-4576
      • CHAPTER 4. Demolishing Prisons and Jails. 4600
      • CHAPTER 5. Trials of Prisoners. 4700.1-4703
      • CHAPTER 6. Local Expenses. 4750-4758
    • TITLE 6. Reprieves, Pardons and Commutations
      • CHAPTER 1. Powers and Duties of Governor. 4800-4813
      • CHAPTER 3. Duties of Supreme Court. 4850-4852
      • CHAPTER 3.5. Procedure for Restoration of Rights and Application for Pardon. 4852.01-4852.21
      • CHAPTER 4. Effect of Full Pardon. 4853-4854
      • CHAPTER 5. Indemnity for Persons Erroneously Convicted and Pardoned. 4900-4906
    • TITLE 7. Administration of the State Correctional System
      • CHAPTER 1. The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation 5000-5030.1
      • CHAPTER 2. The Secretary of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. 5050-5072
      • CHAPTER 3. The Board of Parole Hearings. 5075-5081
      • CHAPTER 3.5. The Robert Presley Center of Crime and Justice Studies. 5085-5088
      • CHAPTER 4. Division of Juvenile Facilities. 6001-6005
      • CHAPTER 4.5. Examination of Staff for Tuberculosis. 6006-6009
      • CHAPTER 5. The Corrections Standards Authority
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 6024-6031.6
        • Article 2. Standards and Training of Local Corrections and Probation Officers. 6035-6036
        • Article 3. Corrections Training Fund. 6040
        • Article 3.5. Council on Mentally Ill Offenders. 6044
      • CHAPTER 6. Appointment of Personnel. 6050-6055
      • CHAPTER 6.5. Internal Investigations. 6065
      • CHAPTER 7. Definitions. 6080-6082
      • CHAPTER 8. The Medical Facility. 6100-6106
      • CHAPTER 8.2. Office of the Inspector General. 6125-6141
      • CHAPTER 9. Conservation Centers. 6200-6208
      • CHAPTER 9.2. Restitution Centers. 6220-6236
      • CHAPTER 9.4. Substance Abuse Community Correctional Detention Centers. 6240-6246
      • CHAPTER 9.5. Community Correctional Centers. 6250-6259
      • CHAPTER 9.6. Work Furlough Programs. 6260-6266
      • CHAPTER 9.7. Special Facilities. 6267
      • CHAPTER 9.8. Reentry Program Facilities. 6270-6275
      • CHAPTER 10. Regional Jail Camps. 6300-6304
      • CHAPTER 10.5. Prison Visitor Services. 6350-6356
      • CHAPTER 10.7. Prison Visitation. 6400
      • CHAPTER 11. Master Plan Construction. 7000-7050
      • CHAPTER 12. New Prison Construction Bond Act of 1981. 7100-7111
      • CHAPTER 13. New Prison Construction Bond Act of 1984. 7200-7211
      • CHAPTER 14. New Prison Construction Bond Act of 1986. 7300-7311
      • CHAPTER 15. New Prison Construction Bond Act of 1988. 7400-7414
      • CHAPTER 16. New Prison Construction Bond Act of 1990. 7420-7434
      • CHAPTER 17. Children of Incarcerated Parents. 7440-7445
    • TITLE 8. Medical Testing of Prisoners
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 7500-7505
      • CHAPTER 2. Procedures for Requiring Hiv Testing. 7510-7519
      • CHAPTER 3. Notification Requirement. 7520-7523
      • CHAPTER 4. Testing Procedures. 7530-7531
      • CHAPTER 5. Penalties. 7540
      • CHAPTER 6. Miscellaneous Provisions. 7550-7554
    • TITLE 8.7. Examination of Inmates and Wards for Tuberculosis. 7570-7576
    • TITLE 9. Punishment Options
      • CHAPTER 1. Programs With Special Focus on Substance Abuse. 8000-8002
      • CHAPTER 2. Community-based Punishment Act
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 8050-8052
        • Article 2. State Administration. 8060-8061
        • Article 3. Community-based Punishment Plan. 8080
        • Article 4. Funding. 8090-8093
      • CHAPTER 3. Sex Offender Management Board. 9000-9003
    • TITLE 10. General Provisions. 10000-10007
  • PART 4. Prevention of Crimes and Apprehension of Criminals
    • TITLE 1. Investigation and Control of Crimes and Criminals
      • CHAPTER 1. Investigation, Identification, and Information Responsibilities of the Department of Justice
        • Article 1. Administration. 11006-11010
        • Article 2. Criminal Investigation. 11050-11055
        • Article 2.3. California Criminalistics Institute. 11060-11062
        • Article 2.5. Criminal Record Dissemination. 11075-11081
        • Article 3. Criminal Identification and Statistics. 11100-11112
        • Article 3.5. Fingerprints and Photographs. 11112.1-11112.7
        • Article 4. Criminal Records. 11115-11117
        • Article 5. Examination of Records. 11120-11127
        • Article 6. Unlawful Furnishing of State Summary Criminal History Information. 11140-11144
      • CHAPTER 1.5. National Search of Criminal Records. 11145-11149.4
      • CHAPTER 2. Control of Crimes and Criminals
        • Article 1. Release of Persons Convicted of Arson. 11150-11152
        • Article 1.5. Reports of Disposition of Inmates. 11155-11158
        • Article 2. Reports of Injuries. 11160-11163.6
        • Article 2.5. Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act. 11164-11174.3
        • Article 2.6. Child Death Review Teams. 11174.32-11174.35
        • Article 2.7. Elder and Dependent Adult Death Review Teams. 11174.4-11174.9
        • Article 3. Uniform Act for Out-of-state Parolee Supervision 11175-11179
        • Article 3.5. Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision. 11180-11181
        • Article 4. Interstate Corrections Compacts. 11189-11198
        • Article 5. Reports of Animal Cruelty, Abuse, or Neglect. 11199
      • CHAPTER 3. Prevention and Abatement of Unlawful Activities
        • Article 1. Unlawful Liquor Sale Abatement Law. 11200-11207
        • Article 2. Red Light Abatement Law. 11225-11235
        • Article 3. Control of Gambling Ships. 11300-11319
        • Article 4.5. Terrorizing. 11410-11414
        • Article 4.6. The Hertzberg-alarcon California Prevention of Terrorism Act. 11415-11419
        • Article 6. Paramilitary Organizations. 11460
    • TITLE 1.5. Statewide Programs of Education, Training, and Research for Local Public Prosecutors and Public Defenders. 11500-11504
    • TITLE 2. Sentence Enhancements. 12001-12022.95
    • TITLE 3. Criminal Statistics
      • CHAPTER 1. Department of Justice
        • Article 1. Duties of the Department. 13000-13014
        • Article 2. Duties of Public Agencies and Officers. 13020-13023
      • CHAPTER 1.5. Reports to the Bureau of Livestock Identification. 13050-13051
      • CHAPTER 2. Criminal Offender Record Information
        • Article 1. Legislative Findings and Definitions. 13100-13104
        • Article 2. Recording Information. 13125-13128
        • Article 3. Reporting Information. 13150-13154
        • Article 4. Information Service. 13175-13177
        • Article 5. Access to Information. 13200-13203
        • Article 6. Local Summary Criminal History Information. 13300-13305
        • Article 7. Examinations of Local Records. 13320-13326
    • TITLE 4. Standards and Training of Local Law Enforcement Officers
      • CHAPTER 1. Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training
        • Article 1. Administration. 13500-13508
        • Article 2. Field Services and Standards for Recruitment and Training. 13510-13519.15
        • Article 3. Peace Officers' Training Fund and Allocations Therefrom. 13520-13526.2
        • Article 4. Peace Officers. 13540-13542
        • Article 5. Local Law Enforcement Accreditation. 13550-13553
    • TITLE 4.5. Commission on Correctional Peace Officer Standards and Training. 13600-13603
    • TITLE 5. Law Enforcement Response to Domestic Violence
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 13700-13702
      • CHAPTER 2. Restraining Orders. 13710-13711
      • CHAPTER 4. Data Collection. 13730-13732
    • TITLE 5.3. Family Justice Centers. 13750-13752
    • TITLE 5.7. Reproductive Rights Law Enforcement Act. 13775-13779
    • TITLE 6. California Council on Criminal Justice
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions and Definitions. 13800-13801
      • CHAPTER 2. California Council on Criminal Justice. 13812
      • CHAPTER 3. Criminal Justice Planning. 13820-13825
      • CHAPTER 3.1. The California Gang, Crime, and Violence Prevention Partnership Program. 13825.1-13825.6
      • CHAPTER 3.5. Gang Violence Suppression. 13826-13826.7
      • CHAPTER 3.7. Judicial Training Programs for Child Sexual Abuse Cases. 13828-13828.1
      • CHAPTER 4. Criminal Justice Planning Committee for State Judicial System
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 13830-13833
        • Article 2. Local Assistance Centers for Victims and Witnesses. 13835-13835.10
        • Article 3. Training of Sexual Assault Investigators. 13836-13836.2
        • Article 4. Rape Victim Counseling Centers. 13837-13838
      • CHAPTER 5. California Community Crime Resistance Program. 13840-13846
      • CHAPTER 5.5. Rural Indian Crime Prevention Program. 13847-13847.2
      • CHAPTER 5.7. High Technology Theft Apprehension and Prosecution Program. 13848-13848.6
      • CHAPTER 6. California Career Criminal Apprehension Program. 13850-13854
      • CHAPTER 7. Suppression of Drug Abuse in Schools. 13860-13864
      • CHAPTER 8. Information on Racial, Ethnic and Religious Crimes. 13872
      • CHAPTER 8.6. Law Enforcement Response to Drug Endangered Children. 13879.80-13879.81
      • CHAPTER 9. California Major Narcotic Vendors Prosecution Law 13880-13884
      • CHAPTER 9.5. Statewide Sexual Predator Apprehension Team. 13885-13885.8
      • CHAPTER 9.7. County Sexual Assault Felony Enforcement (safe)team Program. 13887-13887.5
      • CHAPTER 10. California Forensic Science Laboratory Enhancement Program. 13890-13891
      • CHAPTER 11. Victims' Legal Resource Center. 13897-13897.3
    • TITLE 6.5. Local Criminal Justice Planning. 13900-13980
    • TITLE 7.5. The Hertzberg-leslie Witness Protection Act. 14020-14033
    • TITLE 8. Building Security. 14051
    • TITLE 10. Community Violence Prevention and Conflict Resolution. 14110-14121
    • TITLE 10.5. Violent Crimes Against Women. 14140-14143
    • TITLE 10.6. Community Conflict Resolution Programs. 14150-14156
    • TITLE 11. Records and Reports of Monetary Instrument Transactions. 14160-14167
    • TITLE 11.5. Central Valley Rural Crime Prevention Program. 14170-14175
    • TITLE 11.7. Central Coast Rural Crime Prevention Program. 14180-14183
    • TITLE 12. Violent Crime Information Center. 14200-14213
    • TITLE 12.5. Dna. 14250-14251
    • TITLE 13. Local Environmental Enforcement and Training Programs
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 14300-14303
      • CHAPTER 2. Peace Officer Environmental Enforcement Training. 14304
      • CHAPTER 3. Environmental Training and Enforcement. 14306-14308
      • CHAPTER 4. Environmental Circuit Prosecutor Project. 14309
      • CHAPTER 5. Implementation and Funding Priorities. 14314-14315
  • PART 5. Peace Officers' Memorial. 15001-15003
  • PART 6. Control of Deadly Weapons
    • TITLE 1. Preliminary Provisions
      • DIVISION 1. General Provisions. 16000-16025
      • DIVISION 2. Definitions. 16100-17360
    • TITLE 2. Weapons Generally
      • DIVISION 1. Miscellaneous Rules Relating to Weapons Generally 17500-17515
      • DIVISION 2. Generally Prohibited Weapons
        • CHAPTER 1. Exemptions. 17700-17745
        • CHAPTER 2. Miscellaneous Provisions. 17800
      • DIVISION 3. Surrender, Disposal, and Enjoining of Weapons Constituting a Nuisance. 18000-18010
      • DIVISION 4. Seizure of Firearm or other Deadly Weapon at Scene of Domestic Violence
        • CHAPTER 1. Seizure and Subsequent Procedures. 18250-18275
        • CHAPTER 2. Procedure Where Agency Believes Return of Weapon Would Create Danger. 18400-18420
        • CHAPTER 3. Liability. 18500
      • DIVISION 5. Destructive Devices, Explosives, and Similar Weapons
        • CHAPTER 1. Destructive Devices and Explosives Generally
          • Article 1. Prohibited Acts. 18710-18780
          • Article 2. Exemptions. 18800
          • Article 3. Permit and Inspection. 18900-18910
          • Article 4. Destructive Device Constituting Nuisance. 19000
        • CHAPTER 2. Explosive Substance other than Fixed Ammunition 19100-19190
        • CHAPTER 3. Handgrenades. 19200-19290
      • DIVISION 6. Less Lethal Weapons. 19400-19405
    • TITLE 3. Weapons and Devices other than Firearms
      • DIVISION 1. Bb Devices. 19910-19915
      • DIVISION 2. Blowguns. 20010-20015
      • DIVISION 3. Boobytrap. 20110
      • DIVISION 4. Imitation Firearms. 20150-20180
      • DIVISION 5. Knives and Similar Weapons
        • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 20200
        • CHAPTER 2. Disguised or Misleading Appearance
          • Article 1. Air Gauge Knife. 20310-20390
          • Article 2. Belt Buckle Knife. 20410-20490
          • Article 3. Cane Sword. 20510-20590
          • Article 4. Lipstick Case Knife. 20610-20690
          • Article 5. Shobi-zue. 20710-20790
          • Article 6. Undetectable Knife. 20810-20820
          • Article 7. Writing Pen Knife. 20910-20990
        • CHAPTER 3. Ballistic Knife. 21110-21190
        • CHAPTER 4. Dirk or Dagger. 21310-21390
        • CHAPTER 5. Switchblade Knife. 21510-21590
      • DIVISION 6. Knuckles
        • CHAPTER 1. Composite Knuckles or Hard Wooden Knuckles. 21710
        • CHAPTER 2. Metal Knuckles. 21810-21890
      • DIVISION 7. Nunchaku. 22010-22090
      • DIVISION 8. Saps and Similar Weapons. 22210-22295
      • DIVISION 9. Shuriken. 22410-22490
      • DIVISION 10. Stun Gun. 22610-22625
      • DIVISION 11. Tear Gas and Tear Gas Weapons
        • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 22810-22840
        • CHAPTER 2. Unlawful Possession, Sale, or Transportation. 22900-22910
        • CHAPTER 3. Permits. 23000-23025
    • TITLE 4. Firearms
      • DIVISION 1. Preliminary Provisions. 23500-23520
      • DIVISION 2. Firearm Safety Devices, Gun Safes, and Related Warnings. 23620-23690
      • DIVISION 3. Disguised or Misleading Appearance
        • CHAPTER 1. Miscellaneous Provisions. 23800
        • CHAPTER 2. Obliteration of Identification Marks. 23900-23925
        • CHAPTER 3. Camouflaging Firearm Container. 24310-24390
        • CHAPTER 4. Cane Gun. 24410-24490
        • CHAPTER 5. Firearm Not Immediately Recognizable as a Firearm 24510-24590
        • CHAPTER 6. Undetectable Firearm and Firearm Detection Equipment. 24610-24690
        • CHAPTER 7. Wallet Gun. 24710-24790
      • DIVISION 4. Storage of Firearms
        • CHAPTER 1. Preliminary Provisions. 25000
        • CHAPTER 2. Criminal Storage of Firearm. 25100-25130
        • CHAPTER 3. Storage of Firearm Where Child Obtains Access and Carries Firearm Off-premises. 25200-25225
      • DIVISION 5. Carrying Firearms
        • CHAPTER 1. Miscellaneous Rules Relating to Carrying Firearms. 25300
        • CHAPTER 2. Carrying a Concealed Firearm
          • Article 1. Crime of Carrying a Concealed Firearm. 25400
          • Article 2. Peace Officer Exemption. 25450-25475
          • Article 3. Conditional Exemptions. 25505-25595
          • Article 4. Other Exemptions. 25600-25655
          • Article 5. Concealed Carrying of Firearm as a Nuisance. 25700
        • CHAPTER 3. Carrying a Loaded Firearm
          • Article 1. Armed Criminal Action. 25800
          • Article 2. Crime of Carrying a Loaded Firearm in Public. 25850
          • Article 3. Peace Officer Exemption to the Crime of Carrying a Loaded Firearm in Public. 25900-25925
          • Article 4. Other Exemptions to the Crime of Carrying a Loaded Firearm in Public. 26000-26060
          • Article 5. Loaded Firearm in a Motor Vehicle. 26100
        • CHAPTER 4. License to Carry a Pistol, Revolver, or other Firearm Capable of Being Concealed Upon the Person. 26150-26225
        • CHAPTER 5. Retired Peace Officer Carrying a Concealed and Loaded Firearm. 26300-26325
        • CHAPTER 6. Openly Carrying an Unloaded Handgun
          • Article 1. Crime of Openly Carrying an Unloaded Handgun. 26350
          • Article 2. Exemptions. 26361-26389
      • DIVISION 6. Sale, Lease, or Transfer of Firearms
        • CHAPTER 1. License Requirement for Sale, Lease, or Transfer of Firearms
          • Article 1. License Requirement and Miscellaneous Exceptions 26500-26590
          • Article 2. Exceptions Relating to Law Enforcement. 26600-26615
        • CHAPTER 2. Issuance, Forfeiture, and Conditions of License to Sell, Lease, or Transfer Firearms at Retail
          • Article 1. License to Sell, Lease, or Transfer Firearms at Retail. 26700-26725
          • Article 2. Grounds for Forfeiture of License. 26800-26915
          • Article 3. Exceptions Extending only to Waiting Period. 26950-26970
          • Article 4. Exceptions Extending only to Grounds for Forfeiture of License. 27000-27005
          • Article 5. Exceptions Relating to Law Enforcement. 27050-27065
          • Article 6. Other Exceptions. 27100-27140
        • CHAPTER 3. Gun Show or Event
          • Article 1. Gun Show or Event. 27200-27245
          • Article 2. Gun Show Enforcement and Security Act of 2000. 27300-27350
          • Article 3. Exceptions Relating to Law Enforcement. 27400-27415
        • CHAPTER 4. Crimes Relating to Sale, Lease, or Transfer of Firearms
          • Article 1. Crimes Relating to Sale, Lease, or Transfer of Firearms. 27500-27590
          • Article 2. Exceptions Relating to Law Enforcement. 27600-27615
          • Article 3. Exceptions Extending only to Waiting Period. 27650-27670
          • Article 4. Exceptions to Restrictions on Delivery of a Firearm. 27700-27750
          • Article 5. Exceptions to the Requirement of Obtaining a Verification Number. 27805-27835
          • Article 6. Exceptions to the Requirement of Using a Dealer for a Private Party Firearms Transaction. 27850-27966
          • Article 7. Report to Department of Justice. 28000
        • CHAPTER 5. Procedure for a Private Party Firearms Transaction. 28050-28070
        • CHAPTER 6. Recordkeeping, Background Checks, and Fees Relating to Sale, Lease, or Transfer of Firearms
          • Article 1. General Provisions Relating to the Register or the Record of Electronic or Telephonic Transfer. 28100-28110
          • Article 2. Form of the Register or the Record of Electronic Transfer. 28150-28180
          • Article 3. Submission of Fees and Firearm Purchaser Information to the Department of Justice. 28200-28250
          • Article 4. Firearms Safety and Enforcement Special Fund. 28300
          • Article 5. Exceptions Relating to Law Enforcement. 28400-28415
          • Article 6. Centralized List of Exempted Federal Firearms Licensees. 28450-28490
      • DIVISION 7. Manufacture of Firearms
        • CHAPTER 1. License Requirement for Manufacture of Firearms. 29010
        • CHAPTER 2. Issuance, Forfeiture, and Conditions of License to Manufacture Firearms
          • Article 1. Preliminary Provisions. 29030
          • Article 2. Licensing Process. 29050-29075
          • Article 3. Prohibitions and Requirements Applicable to Licensee. 29100-29150
      • DIVISION 8. Miscellaneous Rules Relating to Firearms Generally
        • CHAPTER 1. Miscellaneous Provisions. 29300
        • CHAPTER 2. Entertainment Firearms Permit. 29500-29535
      • DIVISION 9. Special Firearm Rules Relating to Particular Persons
        • CHAPTER 1. Juvenile
          • Article 1. Possession of Handgun. 29610-29615
          • Article 2. Possession of Live Ammunition. 29650-29655
          • Article 3. Punishment. 29700-29705
          • Article 4. Legislative Intent. 29750
        • CHAPTER 2. Person Convicted of Specified Offense, Addicted to Narcotic, or Subject to Court Order
          • Article 1. Prohibitions on Firearm Access. 29800-29825
          • Article 2. Exemption or Petition for Relief. 29850-29865
          • Article 3. Miscellaneous Provisions. 29875
        • CHAPTER 3. Person Convicted of Violent Offense. 29900-29905
        • CHAPTER 4. Prohibited Armed Persons File. 30000-30010
        • CHAPTER 5. Firearms Eligibility Check
          • Article 1. Firearms Eligibility Check. 30105
          • Article 2. Exceptions Relating to Law Enforcement. 30150-30165
      • DIVISION 10. Special Rules Relating to Particular Types of Firearms or Firearm Equipment
        • CHAPTER 1. Ammunition
          • Article 1. Flechette Dart Ammunition or Bullet Containing or Carrying an Explosive Agent. 30210-30290
          • Article 2. Other Restrictions Relating to Ammunition. 30300-30340
          • Article 3. Handgun Ammunition Vendors. 30345-30365
        • CHAPTER 2. Assault Weapons And.50 Bmg Rifles
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 30500-30530
          • Article 2. Unlawful Acts Relating to Assault Weapons And.50 Bmg Rifles. 30600-30675
          • Article 3. Sks Rifles. 30710-30735
          • Article 4. Assault Weapon Or.50 Bmg Rifle Constituting Nuisance. 30800
          • Article 5. Registration of Assault Weapons And.50 Bmg Rifles and Related Rules. 30900-30965
          • Article 6. Permits for Assault Weapons And.50 Bmg Rifles 31000-31005
          • Article 7. Licensed Gun Dealers. 31050-31055
          • Article 8. Miscellaneous Provisions. 31100-31115
        • CHAPTER 3. Body Armor. 31310-31360
        • CHAPTER 4. Handguns
          • Article 1. Unconventional Pistol. 31500-31590
          • Article 2. Handgun Safety Certificate. 31610-31670
          • Article 3. Exceptions to Handgun Safety Certificate Requirement. 31700-31830
          • Article 4. "unsafe Handgun" and Related Definitions. 31900-31910
          • Article 5. Rules Governing Unsafe Handguns. 32000-32030
          • Article 6. Exceptions to Rules Governing Unsafe Handguns. 32100-32110
        • CHAPTER 5. Large-capacity Magazine
          • Article 1. Rules Governing Large-capacity Magazines. 32310-32390
          • Article 2. Exceptions Relating Specifically to Large-capacity Magazines. 32400-32450
        • CHAPTER 6. Machineguns
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 32610
          • Article 2. Unlawful Acts Relating to Machineguns. 32625
          • Article 3. Permits. 32650-32670
          • Article 4. Licenses to Sell Machineguns. 32700-32720
          • Article 5. Machinegun Constituting Nuisance. 32750
        • CHAPTER 7. Multiburst Trigger Activator. 32900-32990
        • CHAPTER 8. Short-barreled Rifle or Short-barreled Shotgun
          • Article 1. Restrictions Relating to Short-barreled Rifle or Short-barreled Shotgun. 33210-33290
          • Article 2. Permit for Short-barreled Rifle or Short-barreled Shotgun. 33300-33320
        • CHAPTER 9. Silencers. 33410-33415
        • CHAPTER 10. Zip Guns. 33600-33690
      • DIVISION 11. Firearm in Custody of Court or Law Enforcement Agency or Similar Situation
        • CHAPTER 1. Procedure for Taking Firearm Into Custody. 33800
        • CHAPTER 2. Return or Transfer of Firearm in Custody or Control of Court or Law Enforcement Agency. 33850-33895
        • CHAPTER 3. Firearms That Are Unclaimed, Abandoned, or Subject to Destruction. 34000-34010
      • DIVISION 12. Miscellaneous Duties of the Department of Justice
        • CHAPTER 1. Miscellaneous Reports and Publications. 34200-34205
        • CHAPTER 2. Ballistics Identification System. 34350-34370

Preliminary Provisions.

Section 2

This Code takes effect at twelve o'clock, noon, on the first day of January, eighteen hundred and seventy-three.

Section 3

No part of it is retroactive, unless expressly so declared.

Section 4

The rule of the common law, that penal statutes are to be strictly construed, has no application to this Code. All its provisions are to be construed according to the fair import of their terms, with a view to effect its objects and to promote justice.

Section 5

The provisions of this Code, so far as they are substantially the same as existing statutes, must be construed as continuations thereof, and not as new enactments.

Section 6

No act or omission, commenced after twelve o'clock noon of the day on which this Code takes effect as a law, is criminal or punishable, except as prescribed or authorized by this Code, or by some of the statutes which it specifies as continuing in force and as not affected by its provisions, or by some ordinance, municipal, county, or township regulation, passed or adopted, under such statutes and in force when this Code takes effect. Any act or omission commenced prior to that time may be inquired of, prosecuted, and punished in the same manner as if this Code had not been passed.

Section 7

Words used in this code in the present tense include the future as well as the present; words used in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural, and the plural the singular; the word "person" includes a corporation as well as a natural person; the word "county" includes "city and county"; writing includes printing and typewriting; oath includes affirmation or declaration; and every mode of oral statement, under oath or affirmation, is embraced by the term "testify," and every written one in the term "depose"; signature or subscription includes mark, when the person cannot write, his or her name being written near it, by a person who writes his or her own name as a witness; provided, that when a signature is made by mark it must, in order that the same may be acknowledged or serve as the signature to any sworn statement, be witnessed by two persons who must subscribe their own names as witnesses thereto.

The following words have in this code the signification attached to them in this section, unless otherwise apparent from the context:

1. The word "willfully," when applied to the intent with which an act is done or omitted, implies simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the omission referred to. It does not require any intent to violate law, or to injure another, or to acquire any advantage.

2. The words "neglect," "negligence," "negligent," and "negligently" import a want of such attention to the nature or probable consequences of the act or omission as a prudent man ordinarily bestows in acting in his own concerns.

3. The word "corruptly" imports a wrongful design to acquire or cause some pecuniary or other advantage to the person guilty of the act or omission referred to, or to some other person.

4. The words "malice" and "maliciously" import a wish to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or an intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or presumption of law.

5. The word "knowingly" imports only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. It does not require any knowledge of the unlawfulness of such act or omission.

6. The word "bribe" signifies anything of value or advantage, present or prospective, or any promise or undertaking to give any, asked, given, or accepted, with a corrupt intent to influence, unlawfully, the person to whom it is given, in his or her action, vote, or opinion, in any public or official capacity.

7. The word "vessel," when used with reference to shipping, includes ships of all kinds, steamboats, canalboats, barges, and every structure adapted to be navigated from place to place for the transportation of merchandise or persons, except that, as used in Sections 192.5 and 193.5, the word "vessel" means a vessel as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 651 of the Harbors and Navigation Code.

8. The words "peace officer" signify any one of the officers mentioned in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2.

9. The word "magistrate" signifies any one of the officers mentioned in Section 808.

10. The word "property" includes both real and personal property.

11. The words "real property" are coextensive with lands, tenements, and hereditaments.

12. The words "personal property" include money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt.

13. The word "month" means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed; the word "daytime" means the period between sunrise and sunset, and the word "nighttime" means the period between sunset and sunrise.

14. The word "will" includes codicil.

15. The word "writ" signifies an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer, and the word "process" a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings.

16. Words and phrases must be construed according to the context and the approved usage of the language; but technical words and phrases, and such others as may have acquired a peculiar and appropriate meaning in law, must be construed according to such peculiar and appropriate meaning.

17. Words giving a joint authority to three or more public officers or other persons, are construed as giving such authority to a majority of them, unless it is otherwise expressed in the act giving the authority.

18. When the seal of a court or public officer is required by law to be affixed to any paper, the word "seal" includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone, or upon any substance attached to the paper capable of receiving a visible impression. The seal of a private person may be made in like manner, or by the scroll of a pen, or by writing the word "seal" against his or her name.

19. The word "state," when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories.

20. The word "section," whenever hereinafter employed, refers to a section of this code, unless some other code or statute is expressly mentioned.

21. To "book" signifies the recordation of an arrest in official police records, and the taking by the police of fingerprints and photographs of the person arrested, or any of these acts following an arrest.

Section 7.5

Whenever any offense is described in this code, the Uniform Controlled Substances Act (Division 10 (commencing with Section 11000) of the Health and Safety Code), or the Welfare and Institutions Code, as criminal conduct and as a violation of a specified code section or a particular provision of a code section, in the case of any ambiguity or conflict in interpretation, the code section or particular provision of the code section shall take precedence over the descriptive language. The descriptive language shall be deemed as being offered only for ease of reference unless it is otherwise clearly apparent from the context that the descriptive language is intended to narrow the application of the referenced code section or particular provision of the code section.

Section 8

Whenever, by any of the provisions of this Code, an intent to defraud is required in order to constitute any offense, it is sufficient if an intent appears to defraud any person, association, or body politic or corporate, whatever.

Section 9

The omission to specify or affirm in this Code any liability to damages, penalty, forfeiture, or other remedy imposed by law and allowed to be recovered or enforced in any civil action or proceeding, for any act or omission declared punishable herein, does not affect any right to recover or enforce the same.

Section 10

The omission to specify or affirm in this Code any ground of forfeiture of a public office, or other trust or special authority conferred by law, or any power conferred by law to impeach, remove, depose, or suspend any public officer or other person holding any trust, appointment, or other special authority conferred by law, does not affect such forfeiture or power, or any proceeding authorized by law to carry into effect such impeachment, removal, deposition, or suspension.

Section 11

This code does not affect any power conferred by law upon any court-martial, or other military authority or officer, to impose or inflict punishment upon offenders; nor, except as provided in Section 19.2 of this code, any power conferred by law upon any public body, tribunal, or officer, to impose or inflict punishment for a contempt.

Section 12

The several sections of this Code which declare certain crimes to be punishable as therein mentioned, devolve a duty upon the Court authorized to pass sentence, to determine and impose the punishment prescribed.

Section 13

Whenever in this Code the punishment for a crime is left undetermined between certain limits, the punishment to be inflicted in a particular case must be determined by the Court authorized to pass sentence, within such limits as may be prescribed by this Code.

Section 14

The various sections of this Code which declare that evidence obtained upon the examination of a person as a witness cannot be received against him in any criminal proceeding, do not forbid such evidence being proved against such person upon any proceedings founded upon a charge of perjury committed in such examination.