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CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT 1988

UK Public General Acts

Version 31/10/2009

1988 CHAPTER 33

Default Geographical Extent: E+W


  • Part I. Extradition
    • Preliminary (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Suppression of terrorism (E+W+S+N.I.)
  • Part III. Other Provisions about Evidence in Criminal Proceedings
  • Part IV (E+W+N.I.). Reviews of Sentencing
  • Part V (E+W+S+N.I.). Jurisdiction, Imprisonment, Fines, Etc.
    • Jurisdiction
    • Power of Court of Appeal to order retrial
    • Imprisonment (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Maximum fines under subordinate legislation
    • Exceptionally high maximum fines
    • Default in payment of fines etc.
    • Fines and other pecuniary penalties—miscellaneous (E+W+S)
    • Forfeiture
  • Part VI (E+W+S+N.I.). Confiscation of the Proceeds of an Offence
    • Review and revision of certain questions and determinations]
    • Enforcement, etc. of confiscation orders (E+W+S)
    • Enforcement in Scotland (S)
    • Money laundering and other offences] (E+W+S)
    • Investigations into the proceeds of criminal conduct]
    • Enforcement of external orders (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Miscellaneous and supplemental (E+W+S)
  • Part VII (E+W+S). Compensation by Court and Criminal Injuries Compensation Board
    • Powers of court
    • Compensation for victim out of forfeited property
    • The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (E+W+S) (P)
  • Part VIII. Amendments of Law Relating to Juries
  • Part IX (E+W+S). Young Offenders
  • Part X. Probation and the Probation Service, Etc.
  • Part XI (E+W+S+N.I.). Miscellaneous
    • Miscarriages of justice (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Torture (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Articles with blades or points and offensive weapons (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Serious fraud (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Evidence before Service courts (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Amendments of Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 etc. (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Provisions relating to Customs and Excise (E+W+N.I.)
    • Bail and custody
    • Appeals
    • Reports of criminal proceedings (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Possession of indecent photograph of child (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Video recordings (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Restitution orders
    • Magistrates’ courts areas and officers
    • Costs and expenses (E+W+N.I.)
    • Acquisition of easements etc.
  • Part XII (E+W+S+N.I.). General and Supplementary
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Introductory Text

Criminal Justice Act 1988

1988 CHAPTER 33

An Act to make fresh provision for extradition; to amend the rules of evidence in criminal proceedings; to provide for the reference by the Attorney General of certain questions relating to sentencing to the Court of Appeal; to amend the law with regard to the jurisdiction and powers of criminal courts, the collection, enforcement and remission of fines imposed by coroners, juries, supervision orders, the detention of children and young persons, probation and the probation service, criminal appeals, anonymity in cases of rape and similar cases, orders under sections 4 and 11 of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 relating to trials on indictment, orders restricting the access of the public to the whole or any part of a trial on indictment or to any proceedings ancillary to such a trial and orders restricting the publication of any report of the whole or any part of a trial on indictment or any such ancillary proceedings, the alteration of names of petty sessions areas, officers of inner London magistrates’ courts and the costs and expenses of prosecution witnesses and certain other persons; to make fresh provision for the payment of compensation by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board; to make provision for the payment of compensation for a miscarriage of justice which has resulted in a wrongful conviction; to create an offence of torture and an offence of having an article with a blade or point in a public place; to create further offences relating to weapons; to create a summary offence of possession of an indecent photograph of a child; to amend the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 in relation to searches, computer data about fingerprints and bail for persons in customs detention; to make provision in relation to the taking of body samples by the police in Northern Ireland; to amend the Bail Act 1976; to give a justice of the peace power to authorise entry and search of premises for offensive weapons; to provide for the enforcement of the Video Recordings Act 1984 by officers of a weights and measures authority and in Northern Ireland by officers of the Department of Economic Development; to extend to the purchase of easements and other rights over land the power to purchase land conferred on the Secretary of State by section 36 of the Prison Act 1952; and for connected purposes.

[29th July 1988]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1 By Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c.53, SIF 39:1), s. 101(1), Sch. 12 para. 23; S.I. 1991/2208, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 it is provided (14.10.1991) that in relation to any time before the commencement of s.70 of that 1991 Act (which came into force on 1.10.1992 by S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2) references in any enactment amended by that 1991 Act, to youth courts shall be construed as references to juvenile courts.


Part I
Extradition



Preliminary (E+W+S+N.I.)


1—21. Scope of Part I. (E+W+S+N.I.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F1

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F1 Ss. 1–21 repealed by Extradition Act 1989 (c. 33, SIF 48), s. 37, Sch. 2


Suppression of terrorism (E+W+S+N.I.)


22 Suppression of terrorism. (E+W+S+N.I.)

(1) Schedule 1 to the M1 Suppression of Terrorism Act 1978 shall be amended as follows.

(2) The following sub-paragraph shall be inserted before paragraph 8(a) —

“(za) section 4 (soliciting etc. to commit murder) ;”.
(3) The following shall be inserted after paragraph 9—
“9A The offence of torture under section 134 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988.”.
(4) The following shall be inserted after paragraph 13—

“13A Nuclear material
“13A An offence under any provision of the Nuclear Material (Offences) Act 1983.”.
(5) The following shall be added at the end—

“21 Conspiracy
“21 An offence of conspiring to commit any offence mentioned in a preceding paragraph of this Schedule.”.
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F2 Pt. 2 repealed (4.4.2005) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 136(a), 332, 336, Sch. 37 Pt. 6; S.I. 2005/950, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 paras. 6, 27, 44(3) (subject to art. 2(2), Sch. 2 (as amended by S.I. 2005/2122, art. 2))


Part III
Other Provisions about Evidence in Criminal Proceedings



F15 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F15 S. 29 repealed (10.6.1991) by Criminal Justice (International Co-operation) Act 1990 (c. 5, SIF 39:1), s. 31(3), Sch. 5; S.I. 1991/1072, art. 2(a), Schedule Pt. I


30 Expert reports.

(1) An expert report shall be admissible as evidence in criminal proceedings, whether or not the person making it attends to give oral evidence in those proceedings.

(2) If it is proposed that the person making the report shall not give oral evidence, the report shall only be admissible with the leave of the court.

(3) For the purpose of determining whether to give leave the court shall have regard—

(a) to the contents of the report;
(b) to the reasons why it is proposed that the person making the report shall not give oral evidence;
(c) to any risk, having regard in particular to whether it is likely to be possible to controvert statements in the report if the person making it does not attend to give oral evidence in the proceedings, that its admission or exclusion will result in unfairness to the accused or, if there is more than one, to any of them; and
(d) to any other circumstances that appear to the court to be relevant.
(4) An expert report, when admitted, shall be evidence of any fact or opinion of which the person making it could have given oral evidence.

[F16 (4A) Where the proceedings mentioned in subsection (1) above are proceedings before a magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence as examining justices this section shall have effect with the omission of—

(a) in subsection (1) the words “whether or not the person making it attends to give oral evidence in those proceedings", and
(b) subsections (2) to (4).]
(5) In this section “expert report” means a written report by a person dealing wholly or mainly with matters on which he is (or would if living be) qualified to give expert evidence.

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F16 S. 30(4A) inserted (4.7.1996 with effect as mentioned in Sch. 1 Pt. III para. 39 of the amending Act) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para.32 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)


31 Form of evidence and glossaries.

For the purpose of helping members of juries to understand complicated issues of fact or technical terms [F17 Criminal Procedure Rules] may make provision—

(a) as to the furnishing of evidence in any form, notwithstanding the existence of admissible material from which the evidence to be given in that form would be derived; and
(b) as to the furnishing of glossaries for such purposes as may be specified;
in any case where the court gives leave for, or requires, evidence or a glossary to be so furnished.

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F17 Words in s. 31 substituted (1.9.2004) by The Courts Act 2003 (Consequential Amendments) Order 2004 (S.I. 2004/2035), art. 3, Sch. para. 25 (with art. 2(2))


32 Evidence through television links.

(1) A person other than the accused may give evidence through a live television link [F18 in proceedings to which subsection (1A) below applies] if—

(a) the witness is outside the United Kingdom; F19 . . .
(b) F19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
but evidence may not be so given without the leave of the court.
[F20 (1A) This subsection applies—

(a) to trials on indictment, appeals to the criminal division of the Court of Appeal and hearings of references under [F21 section 9 of the Criminal Appeal Act 1995] ] ; and
(b) to proceedings in youth courts [F22 , appeals to the Crown Court arising out of such proceedings and hearings of references under section 11 of the Criminal Appeal Act 1995 so arising] .
(2) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3) A statement made on oath by a witness outside the United Kingdom and given in evidence through a link by virtue of this section shall be treated for the purposes of section 1 of the M6 Perjury Act 1911 as having been made in the proceedings in which it is given in evidence.

(3A) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3B) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3C) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3D) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3E) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4) Without prejudice to the generality of any enactment conferring power to make [F24 Criminal Procedure Rules] , such rules may make such provision as appears to the [F25 Criminal Procedure Rule Committee] to be necessary or expedient for the purposes of this section.

(5) F26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(6) F23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F18 Words in s. 32(1) substituted (1.10.1992) by Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c. 53, SIF 39:1), s. 55(2)(a); S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2.

F19 S. 32(1)(b) and word preceding it repealed (24.7.2002 for specified purposes and otherwise 6.12.2006) by 1999 c. 23, ss. 67, 68(3), Sch. 6 (with Sch. 7 paras. 3(2), 5(2)); S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(g)(iii)); S.I. 2006/2885, art. 2(b)(vii)(aa)

F20 S. 32(1A) inserted (1.10.1992) by Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c. 53, SIF 39:1), s. 55(3); S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2.

F21 Words in s. 32(1A)(a) substituted (31.3.1997) by 1995 c. 35, s. 29(1), Sch. 2 , para. 16(2)(a); S.I. 1997/402, art. 3

F22 Words in s. 32(1A)(b) substituted (31.3.1997) by 1995 c. 35, s. 29(1), Sch. 2 para. 16(2)(b); S.I. 1997/402, art. 3

F23 S. 32(2)(3A)-(3E)(6) repealed (24.7.2002 for specified purposes and 6.12.2006 otherwise) by 1999 c. 23, ss. 67, 68(3), Sch. 6 (with Sch. 7 paras. 3(2), 5(2)); S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(g)(iii)); S.I. 2006/2885, art. 2(b)(vii)(aa)

F24 Words in s. 32(4) substituted (1.9.2004) by The Courts Act 2003 (Consequential Amendments) Order 2004 (S.I. 2004/2035), art. 3, Sch. para. 26(2)(a) (with art. 2(2))

F25 Words in s. 32(4) substituted (1.9.2004) by The Courts Act 2003 (Consequential Amendments) Order 2004 (S.I. 2004/2035), art. 3, Sch. para. 26(2)(b) (with art. 2(2))

F26 S. 32(5) omitted (1.9.2004) by virtue of The Courts Act 2003 (Consequential Amendments) Order 2004 (S.I. 2004/2035), art. 3, Sch. para. 26(3) (with art. 2(2))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C3 S. 32(1)(1)(b)(2)(a)-(c)(3) applied (with modifications) (8.3.1993) by S.I. 1993/244, art. 2

C4 S. 32(1)(3) applied (with modifications) (31.10.2009) by The Court Martial Appeal Court (Evidence) Order (S.I. 2009/2569), {art. 3}

C5 S. 32(1)(a)(3) applied (with modifications) (6.12.2006) by The Criminal Justice Act 1988 (Application to Service Courts) (Evidence) Order 2006 (S.I. 2006/2890), art. 3, Sch.

Commencement Information

I1 S. 32 partly in force; s. 32 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 171; s. 32 except subsections (1)(a)(3) in force at 5.1.1989 by 1988/2073, art. 2, Sch.; s. 32(1)(a)(3) in force for certain purposes at 1.9.2004 by S.I. 2004/2167, art. 2 (subject to art. 3)

Marginal Citations

M6 1911 c. 6.


32A Video recordings of testimony from child witnesses.

F27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F27 S. 32A repealed (24.7.2002 for certain specified purposes and 6.12.2006 otherwise) by 1999 c. 23, ss. 67, 68(3), Sch. 6 (with Sch. 7 paras. 3(2), 5(2)); S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(g)(iii); S.I. 2006/2885, art. 2(b)(vii)(bb)


33 Evidence of persons under 14 in committal proceedings.

The following section shall be substituted for section 103 of the M7 Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980—

“103 Evidence of persons under 14 in committal proceedings for assault, sexual offences etc.
(1) In any proceedings before a magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence to which this section applies as examining justices—
(a) a child shall not be called as a witness for the prosecution; but
(b) any statement made by or taken from a child shall be admissible in evidence of any matter of which his oral testimony would be admissible,
except in a case where the application of this subsection is excluded under subsection (3) below.
(2) This section applies—
(a) to an offence which involves an assault, or injury or a threat of injury to, a person;
(b) to an offence under section 1 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (cruelty to persons under 16) ;
(c) to an offence under the Sexual Offences Act 1956, the Indecency with Children Act 1960, the Sexual Offences Act 1967, section 54 of the Criminal Law Act 1977 or the Protection of Children Act 1978; and
(d) to an offence which consists of attempting or conspiring to commit, or of aiding, abetting, counselling, procuring or inciting the commission of, an offence falling within paragraph (a) , (b) or (c) above.
(3) The application of subsection (1) above is excluded—
(a) where at or before the time when the statement is tendered in evidence the defence objects to its admission; or
(b) where the prosecution requires the attendance of the child for the purpose of establishing the identity of any person; or
(c) where the court is satisfied that it has not been possible to obtain from the child a statement that may be given in evidence under this section; or
(d) where the inquiry into the offence takes place after the court has discontinued to try it summarily and the child has given evidence in the summary trial.
(4) Section 28 above shall not apply to any statement admitted in pursuance of subsection (1) above.
(5) In this section “ child ” means a person under the age of 14.”.
Annotations:

Marginal Citations

M7 1980 c. 43.


F28 33A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F28 S. 33A repealed (24.7.2002) by 1999 c. 23, s. 67, Sch. 6 (with Sch. 7 para. 5(2)); S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(g)(iii)


34 Abolition of requirement of corroboration for unsworn evidence of children.

F29 (1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(2) Any requirement whereby at a trial on indictment it is obligatory for the court to give the jury a warning about convicting the accused on the uncorroborated evidence of a child is abrogated F30 . . ..

(3) Unsworn evidence admitted by virtue of [F31 section 56 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999] may corroborate evidence (sworn or unsworn) given by any other person.

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F29 S. 34(1) repealed (1.10.1992) by Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c. 53, SIF 39:1), ss. 100, 101(2), Sch. 11 para. 37, Sch. 13; S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2.

F30 Words in s. 34(2) repealed (4.9.1995) by 1994 c. 33, ss. 32(2), 168(3), Sch. 11; S.I. 1995/1957, art. 6

F31 Words in s. 34(3) substituted (14.4.2000) by 1999 c. 23, s. 67, Sch. 4 para.17 (with Sch. 7 para. 5(2)); S.I. 2000/1034, art. 2(b)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C6 S. 34(2) explained (1.10.1996 subject to savings in art. 3 of the commencing S.I.) by 1996 c. 46, s. 6(1)(2); S.I. 1996/2474, arts. 2, 3(1)