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CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT 1988

UK Public General Acts

Version 31/07/2017

1988 CHAPTER 33

Default Geographical Extent: E+W


  • Part I. Extradition
    • Preliminary (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Suppression of terrorism (E+W+S+N.I.)
  • F2 F2 Part II. Documentary Evidence in Criminal Proceedings
  • Part III. Other Provisions about Evidence in Criminal Proceedings
  • Part IV (E+W+N.I.). Reviews of Sentencing
  • Part V (E+W+S+N.I.). Jurisdiction, Imprisonment, Fines, Etc.
    • Jurisdiction
    • Power of Court of Appeal to order retrial
    • Imprisonment (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Maximum fines under subordinate legislation
    • Exceptionally high maximum fines
    • Default in payment of fines etc.
    • Fines and other pecuniary penalties—miscellaneous (E+W+S)
    • Forfeiture
  • Part VI (E+W+S+N.I.). Confiscation of the Proceeds of an Offence
    • Review and revision of certain questions and determinations]
    • Enforcement, etc. of confiscation orders (E+W+S)
    • Enforcement in Scotland (S)
    • Money laundering and other offences] (E+W+S)
    • Investigations into the proceeds of criminal conduct]
    • Enforcement of external orders (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Miscellaneous and supplemental (E+W+S)
  • Part VII (E+W+S). Compensation by Court and Criminal Injuries Compensation Board
    • Powers of court
    • Compensation for victim out of forfeited property
    • The Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (E+W+S) (P)
  • Part VIII. Amendments of Law Relating to Juries
  • Part IX (E+W+S). Young Offenders
  • Part X. Probation and the Probation Service, Etc.
  • Part XI (E+W+S+N.I.). Miscellaneous
    • Miscarriages of justice (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Torture (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Articles with blades or points and offensive weapons (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Serious fraud (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Evidence before Service courts (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Amendments of Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 etc. (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Provisions relating to Customs and Excise (E+W+N.I.)
    • Bail and custody
    • Appeals
    • Reports of criminal proceedings (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Possession of indecent photograph of child (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Video recordings (E+W+S+N.I.)
    • Restitution orders
    • Magistrates’ courts areas and officers
    • Costs and expenses (E+W+N.I.)
    • Acquisition of easements etc.
  • Part XII (E+W+S+N.I.). General and Supplementary
  • Version 31/07/2017
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  • Version 30/11/2016
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  • Version 01/04/2016
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  • Version 07/03/2016
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  • Version 17/07/2015
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Introductory Text

Criminal Justice Act 1988

1988 CHAPTER 33

An Act to make fresh provision for extradition; to amend the rules of evidence in criminal proceedings; to provide for the reference by the Attorney General of certain questions relating to sentencing to the Court of Appeal; to amend the law with regard to the jurisdiction and powers of criminal courts, the collection, enforcement and remission of fines imposed by coroners, juries, supervision orders, the detention of children and young persons, probation and the probation service, criminal appeals, anonymity in cases of rape and similar cases, orders under sections 4 and 11 of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 relating to trials on indictment, orders restricting the access of the public to the whole or any part of a trial on indictment or to any proceedings ancillary to such a trial and orders restricting the publication of any report of the whole or any part of a trial on indictment or any such ancillary proceedings, the alteration of names of petty sessions areas, officers of inner London magistrates’ courts and the costs and expenses of prosecution witnesses and certain other persons; to make fresh provision for the payment of compensation by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board; to make provision for the payment of compensation for a miscarriage of justice which has resulted in a wrongful conviction; to create an offence of torture and an offence of having an article with a blade or point in a public place; to create further offences relating to weapons; to create a summary offence of possession of an indecent photograph of a child; to amend the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 in relation to searches, computer data about fingerprints and bail for persons in customs detention; to make provision in relation to the taking of body samples by the police in Northern Ireland; to amend the Bail Act 1976; to give a justice of the peace power to authorise entry and search of premises for offensive weapons; to provide for the enforcement of the Video Recordings Act 1984 by officers of a weights and measures authority and in Northern Ireland by officers of the Department of Economic Development; to extend to the purchase of easements and other rights over land the power to purchase land conferred on the Secretary of State by section 36 of the Prison Act 1952; and for connected purposes.

[29th July 1988]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1 By Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c.53, SIF 39:1), s. 101(1), Sch. 12 para. 23; S.I. 1991/2208, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 it is provided (14.10.1991) that in relation to any time before the commencement of s.70 of that 1991 Act (which came into force on 1.10.1992 by S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2) references in any enactment amended by that 1991 Act, to youth courts shall be construed as references to juvenile courts.


Part I
Extradition



Preliminary (E+W+S+N.I.)


1—21. Scope of Part I. (E+W+S+N.I.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F1

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F1 Ss. 1–21 repealed by Extradition Act 1989 (c. 33, SIF 48), s. 37, Sch. 2


Suppression of terrorism (E+W+S+N.I.)


22 Suppression of terrorism. (E+W+S+N.I.)

(1) Schedule 1 to the M1 Suppression of Terrorism Act 1978 shall be amended as follows.

(2) The following sub-paragraph shall be inserted before paragraph 8(a) —

“(za) section 4 (soliciting etc. to commit murder) ;”.
(3) The following shall be inserted after paragraph 9—
“9A The offence of torture under section 134 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988.”.
(4) The following shall be inserted after paragraph 13—

“13A Nuclear material
“13A An offence under any provision of the Nuclear Material (Offences) Act 1983.”.
(5) The following shall be added at the end—

“21 Conspiracy
“21 An offence of conspiring to commit any offence mentioned in a preceding paragraph of this Schedule.”.
Annotations:

Marginal Citations

M1 1978 c. 26.


F2 F2 Part II
Documentary Evidence in Criminal Proceedings



Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F2 Pt. 2 repealed (4.4.2005) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 136(a), 332, 336, Sch. 37 Pt. 6; S.I. 2005/950, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 paras. 6, 27, 44(3) (subject to art. 2(2), Sch. 2 (as amended by S.I. 2005/2122, art. 2))


23 First-hand hearsay.

(1) Subject—

(a) to subsection (4) below; [F3 and]
(b) to paragraph 1A of Schedule 2 to the M2 Criminal Appeal Act 1968 (evidence given orally at original trial to be given orally at retrial) ; F4 . . .
F4 (c). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a statement made by a person in a document shall be admissible in criminal proceedings as evidence of any fact of which direct oral evidence by him would be admissible if—
(i) the requirements of one of the paragraphs of subsection (2) below are satisfied; or
(ii) the requirements of subsection (3) below are satisfied.
(2) The requirements mentioned in subsection (1) (i) above are—

(a) that the person who made the statement is dead or by reason of his bodily or mental condition unfit to attend as a witness;
(b) that—
(i) the person who made the statement is outside the United Kingdom; and
(ii) it is not reasonably practicable to secure his attendance; or
(c) that all reasonable steps have been taken to find the person who made the statement, but that he cannot be found.
(3) The requirements mentioned in subsection (1) (ii) above are—

(a) that the statement was made to a police officer or some other person charged with the duty of investigating offences or charging offenders; and
(b) that the person who made it does not give oral evidence through fear or because he is kept out of the way.
(4) Subsection (1) above does not render admissible a confession made by an accused person that would not be admissible under section 76 of the M3 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.

F5 F6 [( 5 ) . . . ]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F3 Word in s. 23(1) inserted (14.4.2000) by 1999 c. 23, s. 67, Sch. 4 para.16 (with Sch. 7 para. 5(2)); S.I. 2000/1034, art. 2(b)

F4 S. 23(1)(c) and word preceding it repealed (14.4.2000) by 1999 c. 23, s. 67, Sch. 6 (with Sch. 7 para. 5(2)); S.I. 2000/1034, art. 2(c),Sch.

F5 S. 23(5) inserted (4.7.1996 with effect as mentioned in Sch. 1, Pt. III of the amending Act) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 28, Pt. III para. 39 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F6 S. 23(5) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 60(2), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)

Marginal Citations

M2 1968 c. 19.

M3 1984 c. 60.


24 Business etc. documents.

(1) Subject—

(a) to subsections (3) and (4) below; [F7 and]
(b) to paragraph 1A of Schedule 2 to the M4 Criminal Appeal Act 1968; F8 . . .
F8 (c). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a statement in a document shall be admissible in criminal proceedings as evidence of any fact of which direct oral evidence would be admissible, if the following conditions are satisfied—
(i) the document was created or received by a person in the course of a trade, business, profession or other occupation, or as the holder of a paid or unpaid office; and
(ii) the information contained in the document was supplied by a person (whether or not the maker of the statement) who had, or may reasonably be supposed to have had, personal knowledge of the matters dealt with.
(2) Subsection (1) above applies whether the information contained in the document was supplied directly or indirectly but, if it was supplied indirectly, only if each person through whom it was supplied received it—

(a) in the course of a trade, business, profession or other occupation; or
(b) as the holder of a paid or unpaid office.
(3) Subsection (1) above does not render admissible a confession made by an accused person that would not be admissible under section 76 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.

(4) A statement prepared otherwise than in accordance with [F9 section 7 of the Crime (International Co-operation) Act 2003] or an order under paragraph 6 of Schedule 13 to this Act or under section 30 or 31 below for the purposes—

(a) of pending or contemplated criminal proceedings; or
(b) of a criminal investigation,
shall not be admissible by virtue of subsection (1) above unless—
(i) the requirements of one of the paragraphs of subsection (2) of section 23 above are satisfied; or
(ii) the requirements of subsection (3) of that section are satisfied; or
(iii) the person who made the statement cannot reasonably be expected (having regard to the time which has elapsed since he made the statement and to all the circumstances) to have any recollection of the matters dealt with in the statement.
F10 F11 [( 5 ) . . . ]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F7 Word in s. 24(1) inserted (14.4.2000) by 1999 c. 23, s. 67, Sch. 4 para.16 (with Sch. 7 para. 5(2)); S.I. 2000/1034, art. 2

F8 S. 24(1)(c) and word preceding it repealed (14.4.2000) by 1999 c. 23, s. 67, Sch. 6 (with Sch. 7 para. 5(2)); S.I. 2000/1034, art. 2(c), Sch.

F9 Words in s. 24(4) substituted (26.4.2004) by Crime (International Co-operation) Act 2003 (c. 32), ss. 91, 94, Sch. 5 para. 14; S.I. 2004/786, art. 3(2) (with S.I. 2004/787, art. 3(3))

F10 S. 24(5) inserted (4.7.1996 with effect as mentioned in Sch. 1 Pt. III para. 39 of the amending Act) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 29 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F11 S. 24(5) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 60(3), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)

Marginal Citations

M4 1968 c. 19.


25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 Statements in documents that appear to have been prepared for purposes of criminal proceedings or investigations.

Where a statement which is admissible in criminal proceedings by virtue of section 23 or 24 above appears to the court to have been prepared, otherwise than in accordance with [F14 section 7 of the Crime (International Co-operation) Act 2003] or an order under paragraph 6 of Schedule 13 to this Act or under section 30 or 31 below, for the purposes—

(a) of pending or contemplated criminal proceedings; or
(b) of a criminal investigation,
the statement shall not be given in evidence in any criminal proceedings without the leave of the court, and the court shall not give leave unless it is of the opinion that the statement ought to be admitted in the interests of justice; and in considering whether its admission would be in the interests of justice, it shall be the duty of the court to have regard—

(i) to the contents of the statement;
(ii) to any risk, having regard in particular to whether it is likely to be possible to controvert the statement if the person making it does not attend to give oral evidence in the proceedings, that its admission or exclusion will result in unfairness to the accused or, if there is more than one, to any of them; and
(iii) to any other circumstances that appear to the court to be relevant.
F15 F16 [ . . . . ]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F14 Words in s. 26 substituted (26.4.2004) by Crime (International Co-operation) Act 2003 (c. 32), ss. 91, 94, Sch. 5 para. 15; S.I. 2004/786, art. 3(2) (with S.I. 2004/787, art. 3(3))

F15 Words in s. 26 inserted (4.7.1996 with effect as mentioned in Sch. 1 Pt. III para. 39 of the amending Act) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para.30, Pt. III para. 39 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F16 Words in s. 26 repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 60(4), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)


27 Proof of statements contained in documents.

Where a statement contained in a document is admissible as evidence in criminal proceedings, it may be proved—

(a) by the production of that document; or
(b) (whether or not that document is still in existence) by the production of a copy of that document, or of the material part of it,
authenticated in such manner as the court may approve; and it is immaterial for the purposes of this subsection how many removes there are between a copy and the original.

F17 F18 [ . . . . ]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F17 Words in s. 27 inserted (4.7.1996 with effect as mentioned in Sch. 1 Pt. III para. 39 of the amending Act) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 31, Pt. III para. 39 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F18 Words in s. 27 repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 60(5), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)


28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Part III
Other Provisions about Evidence in Criminal Proceedings



F19 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F19 S. 29 repealed (10.6.1991) by Criminal Justice (International Co-operation) Act 1990 (c. 5, SIF 39:1), s. 31(3), Sch. 5; S.I. 1991/1072, art. 2(a), Schedule Pt. I