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ROAD TRAFFIC ACT 1988

UK Public General Acts

Version 08/06/2015

1988 CHAPTER 52

Default Geographical Extent: E+W+S+N.I.


  • Part I. Principal Road Safety Provisions
    • Driving offences (E+W+S)
    • Motor vehicles: drink and drugs
    • Motor racing and motoring events on public ways (E+W+S)
    • Protective measures: seat belts, helmets, etc. (E+W+S)
    • Stopping on verges, etc., or in dangerous positions, etc. (E+W+S)
    • Other restrictions in interests of safety (E+W+S)
    • Cycling offences and cycle racing (E+W+S)
    • Use of motor vehicles away from roads (E+W+S)
    • Directions to traffic and to pedestrians and traffic signs (E+W+S)
    • Promotion of road safety (E+W+S)
  • Part II. Construction and Use of Vehicles and Equipment
    • Using vehicle in dangerous condition (E+W+S)
    • General regulation of construction, use etc. (E+W+S)
    • Tests of vehicles other than goods vehicles to which section 49 applies (E+W+S)
    • Tests of certain classes of goods vehicles (E+W+S)
    • Approval of design, construction, equipment and marking of vehicles (E+W+S)
    • Conditions for grant of excise licence (E+W+S)
    • F230 [ Vehicle examiners (E+W+S)
    • Testing vehicles on roads (E+W+S)
    • Inspection of public passenger vehicles and goods vehicles] (E+W+S)
    • Prohibition of unfit vehicles] (E+W+S)
    • Miscellaneous provisions about vehicles and vehicle parts
    • Pedal cycles and horse-drawn vehicles (E+W+S)
    • Miscellaneous (E+W+S)
  • Part III. Licensing of drivers of vehicles
    • Requirement to hold licence (E+W+S)
    • Tests (E+W+S)
    • Physical fitness (E+W+S)
    • Granting of licences, their form and duration (E+W+S)
    • Driver training] (E+W+S)
    • [F301 EU] licence holders] (E+W+S)
    • Appeals (E+W+S)
    • Disqualification (otherwise than on conviction) (E+W+S)
    • Disqualification if disqualified in Northern Ireland etc. (E+W+S)
    • Effects of disqualification] (E+W+S)
    • Miscellaneous (E+W+S)
  • Part IV (E+W+S). Licensing of drivers of large goods vehicles and passenger-carrying vehicles.]
    • Licensing of drivers of large goods vehicles and passenger-carrying vehicles. (E+W+S)
  • Part IV. Licensing of drivers of heavy goods vehicles
    • Part V (E+W+S). Driving Instruction
      • Instructors to be registered or licensed (E+W+S)
      • Registration (E+W+S)
      • Licences (E+W+S)
      • Appeals (E+W+S)
      • F789 [F790 Compensation] (E+W+S)
      • Examinations and tests (E+W+S)
      • F807 [F808 ... Emergency control certificates, etc] (E+W+S)
      • General and supplemental (E+W+S)
    • Part VI (E+W+S). Third-Party Liabilities
      • Compulsory insurance or security against third-party risks (E+W+S)
      • Payments for treatment of traffic casualties (E+W+S)
      • General (E+W+S)
    • Part VII (E+W+S). Miscellaneous and General
      • Requirement for approval of persons to assist at tests (E+W+S)
      • Powers of constables and other authorised persons (E+W+S)
      • Duty to give name and address (E+W+S)
      • Duties in case of accident (E+W+S)
      • Other duties to give information or documents (E+W+S)
      • Forgery, false statements, etc. (E+W+S)
      • Offences in Scotland (E+W+S)
      • Inquiries (E+W+S)
      • Application to the Crown (E+W+S)
      • Interpretation (E+W+S)
      • Supplementary (E+W+S)
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Introductory Text

Road Traffic Act 1988

1988 CHAPTER 52

An Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to road traffic with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission and the Scottish Law Commission.

[15th November 1988]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Part I
Principal Road Safety Provisions



Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1 Pt. I modified (E.W.S.) (16.8.2006) by The Dover Harbour Revision Order 2006 (S.I. 2006/2167), art. 27


Driving offences (E+W+S)


[F1 1 Causing death by dangerous driving. (E+W+S)

A person who causes the death of another person by driving a mechanically propelled vehicle dangerously on a road or other public place is guilty of an offence.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F1 Ss. 1-2A substituted (1.7.1992) for ss. 1-2 by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s.1; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.


[F2 1A Causing serious injury by dangerous driving (E+W+S)

(1) A person who causes serious injury to another person by driving a mechanically propelled vehicle dangerously on a road or other public place is guilty of an offence.

(2) In this section “serious injury” means—

(a) in England and Wales, physical harm which amounts to grievous bodily harm for the purposes of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, and
(b) in Scotland, severe physical injury.]
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F2 S. 1A inserted (3.12.2012) by Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (c. 10), ss. 143(2), 151(1) (with s. 143(4)); S.I. 2012/2770, art. 2(b)


[F3 2 Dangerous driving. (E+W+S)

A person who drives a mechanically propelled vehicle dangerously on a road or other public place is guilty of an offence.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F3 Ss. 1- 2A substituted (1.7.1992) for ss. 1-2 by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s.1; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.


[F4 2A Meaning of dangerous driving. (E+W+S)

(1) For the purposes of sections 1 [F5 , 1A] and 2 above a person is to be regarded as driving dangerously if (and, subject to subsection (2) below, only if) —

(a) the way he drives falls far below what would be expected of a competent and careful driver, and
(b) it would be obvious to a competent and careful driver that driving in that way would be dangerous.
(2) A person is also to be regarded as driving dangerously for the purposes of sections 1 [F5 , 1A] and 2 above if it would be obvious to a competent and careful driver that driving the vehicle in its current state would be dangerous.

(3) In subsections (1) and (2) above “dangerous” refers to danger either of injury to any person or of serious damage to property; and in determining for the purposes of those subsections what would be expected of, or obvious to, a competent and careful driver in a particular case, regard shall be had not only to the circumstances of which he could be expected to be aware but also to any circumstances shown to have been within the knowledge of the accused.

(4) In determining for the purposes of subsection (2) above the state of a vehicle, regard may be had to anything attached to or carried on or in it and to the manner in which it is attached or carried.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F4 Ss. 1-2A substituted (1.7.1992) for ss. 1-2 by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s.1; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.

F5 Word in s. 2A(1)(2) inserted (3.12.2012) by Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (c. 10), ss. 143(3), 151(1); S.I. 2012/2770, art. 2(b)


[F6 2B Causing death by careless, or inconsiderate, driving (E+W+S)

A person who causes the death of another person by driving a mechanically propelled vehicle on a road or other public place without due care and attention, or without reasonable consideration for other persons using the road or place, is guilty of an offence.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F6 S. 2B inserted (18.8.2008) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 20(1), 61(1) (with s. 61(4)(5)); S.I. 2008/1918, art. 2


[F7 3 Careless, and inconsiderate, driving. (E+W+S)

If a person drives a mechanically propelled vehicle on a road or other public place without due care and attention, or without reasonable consideration for other persons using the road or place, he is guilty of an offence.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F7 S. 3 substituted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 2; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.


[F8 3ZA Meaning of careless, or inconsiderate, driving (E+W+S)

(1) This section has effect for the purposes of sections 2B and 3 above and section 3A below.

(2) A person is to be regarded as driving without due care and attention if (and only if) the way he drives falls below what would be expected of a competent and careful driver.

(3) In determining for the purposes of subsection (2) above what would be expected of a careful and competent driver in a particular case, regard shall be had not only to the circumstances of which he could be expected to be aware but also to any circumstances shown to have been within the knowledge of the accused.

(4) A person is to be regarded as driving without reasonable consideration for other persons only if those persons are inconvenienced by his driving.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F8 S. 3ZA inserted (24.9.2007 for certain purposes and otherwise 18.8.2008) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 30, 61; S.I. 2007/2472, art. 2(h); S.I. 2008/1918, art. 2


[F9 3ZB Causing death by driving: unlicensedF10 ... or uninsured drivers (E+W+S)

A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he causes the death of another person by driving a motor vehicle on a road and, at the time when he is driving, the circumstances are such that he is committing an offence under—

(a) section 87(1) of this Act (driving otherwise than in accordance with a licence) ,
(b) F11 ... or
(c) section 143 of this Act (using motor vehicle while uninsured or unsecured against third party risks).]
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F9 S. 3ZB inserted (18.8.2008) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 21(1), 61(1) (with s. 61(4)(5)); S.I. 2008/1918, art. 2

F10 Word in s. 3ZB heading omitted (13.4.2015) by virtue of Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), s. 95(1), Sch. 6 para. 1(3) (with s. 29(5)); S.I. 2015/778, art. 3, Sch. 1 para. 75

F11 S. 3ZB(b) omitted (13.4.2015) by virtue of Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), s. 95(1), Sch. 6 para. 1(2) (with s. 29(5)); S.I. 2015/778, art. 3, Sch. 1 para. 75


[F12 3ZC Causing death by driving: disqualified drivers (E+W+S)

A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he or she—

(a) causes the death of another person by driving a motor vehicle on a road, and
(b) at that time, is committing an offence under section 103(1) (b) of this Act (driving while disqualified).
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F12 Ss. 3ZC-3ZD inserted (13.4.2015) by Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), ss. 29(1), 95(1) (with s. 29(3)(5)); S.I. 2015/778, art. 3, Sch. 1 para. 24


3ZD Causing serious injury by driving: disqualified drivers (E+W+S)

(1) A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he or she—

(a) causes serious injury to another person by driving a motor vehicle on a road, and
(b) at that time, is committing an offence under section 103(1) (b) of this Act (driving while disqualified).
(2) In this section “serious injury” means—

(a) in England and Wales, physical harm which amounts to grievous bodily harm for the purposes of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, and
(b) in Scotland, severe physical injury.]
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F12 Ss. 3ZC-3ZD inserted (13.4.2015) by Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), ss. 29(1), 95(1) (with s. 29(3)(5)); S.I. 2015/778, art. 3, Sch. 1 para. 24


[F13 3A Causing death by careless driving when under influence of drink or drugs. (E+W+S)

(1) If a person causes the death of another person by driving a mechanically propelled vehicle on a road or other public place without due care and attention, or without reasonable consideration for other persons using the road or place, and—

(a) he is, at the time when he is driving, unfit to drive through drink or drugs, or
(b) he has consumed so much alcohol that the proportion of it in his breath, blood or urine at that time exceeds the prescribed limit, or
[F14 (ba) he has in his body a specified controlled drug and the proportion of it in his blood or urine at that time exceeds the specified limit for that drug, or]
(c) he is, within 18 hours after that time, required to provide a specimen in pursuance of section 7 of this Act, but without reasonable excuse fails to provide it,[F15 or
(d) he is required by a constable to give his permission for a laboratory test of a specimen of blood taken from him under section 7A of this Act, but without reasonable excuse fails to do so,]
he is guilty of an offence.
(2) For the purposes of this section a person shall be taken to be unfit to drive at any time when his ability to drive properly is impaired.

(3) Subsection (1) (b) [F16 , (ba) ] [F17 , (c) and (d) ] above shall not apply in relation to a person driving a mechanically propelled vehicle other than a motor vehicle.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F13 S. 3A inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s.3; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.

F14 S. 3A(1)(ba) inserted (2.3.2015 for E.W.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 2(2); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2

F15 S. 3A(1)(d) and preceding word inserted (24.9.2007) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 31(2), 61; S.I. 2007/2472, art. 2(i)

F16 Word in s. 3A(3) inserted (2.3.2015 for E.W.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 2(3); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2

F17 Words in s. 3A(3) substituted (24.9.2007) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 31(3), 61; S.I. 2007/2472, art. 2(i)


Motor vehicles: drink and drugs