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INSOLVENCY ACT 1986

UK Public General Acts

Version 06/04/2012

1986 CHAPTER 45

Default Geographical Extent: E+W+S+N.I.


  • The First Group of Parts (E+W+S). Company Insolvency; Companies Winding Up
    • Part I (E+W+S). Company Voluntary Arrangements
      • The Proposal (E+W+S)
      • Consideration and implementation of proposal (E+W+S)
    • Part II (E+W+S). administration
    • Part III (E+W+S). Receivership
      • Chapter I (E+W+S). Receivers and Managers (England and Wales)
        • Preliminary and general provisions (E+W+S)
        • Receivers and managers appointed out of court (E+W+S)
        • Provisions applicable to every receivership (E+W+S)
        • Administrative receivers: general (E+W+S)
        • Administrative receivers: ascertainment and investigation of company’s affairs (E+W+S)
      • Chapter II (S). Receivers (Scotland)
      • Chapter III (E+W+S). Receivers’ Powers in Great Britain as a Whole
      • CHAPTER IV (E+W+S). PROHIBITION OF APPOINTMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE RECEIVER
    • Part IV. Winding Up of Companies Registered under the Companies Acts
      • Chapter I (E+W+S). Preliminary
        • Introductory] (E+W+S)
        • Contributories (E+W+S)
      • Chapter II (E+W+S). Voluntary Winding Up (Introductory and General)
        • Resolutions for, and commencement of, voluntary winding up (E+W+S)
        • Consequences of resolution to wind up (E+W+S)
        • Declaration of solvency (E+W+S)
      • Chapter III (E+W+S). Members’ Voluntary Winding Up
      • Chapter IV (E+W+S). Creditors’ Voluntary Winding Up
      • Chapter V (E+W+S). Provisions Applying to both kinds of Voluntary Winding Up
      • Chapter VI (E+W+S). Winding Up by the Court
        • Jurisdiction (England and Wales) (E+W+S)
        • Jurisdiction (Scotland) (E+W+S)
        • Grounds and effect of winding-up petition (E+W+S)
        • Commencement of winding up (E+W+S)
        • Investigation procedures (E+W+S)
        • Appointment of liquidator (E+W+S)
        • Liquidation committees (E+W+S)
        • The liquidator’s functions (E+W+S)
        • General powers of court (E+W+S)
        • Enforcement of, and appeal from, orders (E+W+S)
      • Chapter VII (E+W+S). Liquidators
        • Preliminary (E+W+S)
        • Liquidator’s powers and duties (E+W+S)
        • Removal; vacation of office (E+W+S)
        • Release of liquidator (E+W+S)
      • Chapter VIII. Provisions of General Application in Winding Up
        • Preferential debts (E+W+S)
        • (E+W+S)
        • Special managers (E+W+S)
        • Disclaimer (England and Wales only) (E+W+S)
        • Execution, attachment and the Scottish equivalents (E+W+S)
        • Miscellaneous matters
      • Chaper IX (E+W+S). Dissolution of Companies After Winding Up
      • Chapter X (E+W+S). Malpractice before and during Liquidation; Penalisation of Companies and Company Officers; Investigations and Prosecutions
        • Offences of fraud, deception, etc. (E+W+S)
        • Penalisation of directors and officers (E+W+S)
        • Investigation and prosecution of malpractice (E+W+S)
    • Part V (E+W+S). Winding Up of Unregistered Companies
    • Part VI (E+W+S). Miscellaneous Provisions Applying to Companies Which are Insolvent or in Liquidation
      • Office-holders (E+W+S)
      • Management by administrators, liquidators, etc. (E+W+S)
      • Adjustment of prior transactions (administration and liquidation) (E+W+S)
      • Remote attendance at meetings (E+W+S)
      • Use of websites (E+W+S)
    • Part VII (E+W+S). Interpretation for First Group of Parts
    • The Second Group of Parts (E+W). Insolvency of Individuals; Bankruptcy
      • Part 7A (E+W). Debt relief orders
        • Preliminary (E+W)
        • Applications for a debt relief order (E+W)
        • Making and effect of debt relief order (E+W)
        • Duties of debtor (E+W)
        • Objections, investigations and revocation (E+W)
        • Role of the court (E+W)
        • Offences (E+W)
        • Supplementary (E+W)
      • Part VIII (E+W). Individual Voluntary Arrangements
        • Moratorium for insolvent debtor (E+W)
        • Procedure where no interim order made] (E+W)
        • Creditors’ meeting] (E+W)
        • Consideration and implementation of debtor’s proposal (E+W)
        • (E+W)
      • Part IX (E+W). Bankruptcy
        • Chapter I (E+W). Bankruptcy Petitions; Bankruptcy Orders
          • Preliminary (E+W)
          • Creditor’s petition (E+W)
          • Debtor’s petition (E+W)
          • Other cases for special consideration (E+W)
          • Commencement and duration of bankruptcy; discharge (E+W)
        • Chapter II (E+W). Protection of Bankrupt’s Estate and Investigation of His Affairs
        • Chapter III (E+W). Trustees in Bankruptcy
          • Tenure of office as trustee (E+W)
          • Control of trustee (E+W)
        • Chapter IV (E+W). Administration by Trustee
          • Preliminary (E+W)
          • Acquisition, control and realisation of bankrupt’s estate (E+W)
          • Disclaimer of onerous property (E+W)
          • Distribution of bankrupt’s estate (E+W)
          • Supplemental (E+W)
        • Chapter V (E+W). Effect of Bankruptcy on Certain Rights Transacttions, Etc.
          • Rights under trusts of land (E+W)
          • Rights of occupation (E+W)
          • Adjustment of prior transactions, etc. (E+W)
        • Chapter VI (E+W). Bankruptcy Offences
          • Preliminary (E+W)
          • Wrongdoing by the bankrupt before and after bankruptcy (E+W)
        • Chapter VII (E+W). Powers of Court In Bankruptcy
      • Part X (E+W). Individual Insolvency: General Provisions
      • Part XI (E+W). Interpretation for Second Group of Parts
      • The Third Group of Parts (E+W+S). Miscellaneous Matters Bearing on Both Company and Individual Insolvency; General Interpretation; Final Provisions
        • Part XII (E+W+S). Preferential debts in Company and Individual Insolvency
        • Part XIII (E+W+S). Insolvency Practitioners and their Qualification
          • Restrictions on unqualified persons acting as liquidator, trustee in bankruptcy, etc. (E+W+S)
          • The requisite qualification, and the means of obtaining it (E+W+S)
        • Part XIV (E+W). Public Administration (England and Wales)
          • Official receivers (E+W)
          • The Official Petitioner (E+W)
          • Insolvency Service finance, accounting and investment (E+W)
          • Supplementary (E+W)
        • Part XV (E+W+S). Subordinate Legislation
          • General insolvency rules (E+W+S)
          • Fees orders (E+W+S)
          • Specification, increase and reduction of money sums relevant in the operation of this Act (E+W+S)
          • Insolvency practice (E+W+S)
          • Other order-making powers (E+W+S)
        • Part XVI (E+W). Provisions Against Debt Avoidance (England and Wales only)
        • Part XVII. Miscellaneous and General
        • [F615 PART 17A. SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
        • Part XVIII (E+W+S). Interpretation
        • Part XIX. Final Provisions
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Introductory Text

Insolvency Act 1986

1986 CHAPTER 45

An Act to consolidate the enactments relating to company insolvency and winding up (including the winding up of companies that are not insolvent, and of unregistered companies); enactments relating to the insolvency and bankruptcy of individuals; and other enactments bearing on those two subject matters, including the functions and qualification of insolvency practitioners, the public administration of insolvency, the penalisation and redress of malpractice and wrongdoing, and the avoidance of certain transactions at an undervalue

[25th July 1986]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1 Act amended by Social Security Pensions Act 1975 (c. 60, SIF 113:1), s. 59D(3) (as inserted by Social Security Act 1990 (c. 27, SIF 113:1), s. 12(1), Sch. 3)

Act amended (25.4.1991) by Companies Act 1989 (c. 40), ss. 154, 155, 158(1), 174(1), 190(6); S.I. 1991/878, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 3(4))

Act amended (29.6.1992) by Social Security Pensions Act 1975 (c. 60, SIF 113:1), s. 58B(5) (as inserted (29.6.1992) by Social Security Act 1990 (c. 27, SIF 113:1), s. 14, Sch. 4 Pt. I para. 2; S.I. 1992/1532, art. 2)

Act amended (1.4.1994) by 1993 c. 43, ss. 59(3), 150(1)(c), Sch. 6 Pt. III para. 20(1)-(3); S.I. 1994/571, art. 5 (with transitional provision in art. 7)

Act (except ss. 8-10, 24-26) amended (1.2.2001) by 2000 c. 38, s. 30, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 13(1)(3) (with ss. 105(2)(5), 106); S.I. 2001/57, art. 3(1), Sch. 2 Pt. I (subject to transitional provision and saving in Sch. 2 Pt. II)

Act amended (1.2.2001) by 2000 c. 38, s. 30, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 13(2)(3) (with ss. 105(2)(5), 106); S.I. 2001/57, art. 3(1), Sch. 2 Pt. I (subject to transitional provision and saving in Sch. 2 Pt. II)

Act amended (30.12.2002) by 2002 c. 29, s. 311(4); S.I. 2002/3015, art. 2(1), Sch.

C2 Act restricted (E.W.S.) by Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 (c. 32, SIF 39:1), s. 15(3)(7)

Act restricted (25.4.1991) by Companies Act 1989 (c. 40), s. 182(4), Sch. 22 para. 4(2); S.I. 1991/878, art. 2, Sch.

Act restricted (3.2.1995) by 1994 c. 37, ss. 32(4), 69(2), Sch. 2 para. 5 (with s. 66(2))

Act restricted (31.3.1996) by 1995 c. 20, s. 110(1), Sch. 4 para. 2(4); S.I. 1996/517, art. 3(2) (subject to arts. 4-6, Sch. 2)

Act restricted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 43, ss. 44, 50(2), Sch. 2 para. 2(4)

Act restricted (6.4.1996 for certain purposes and 6.4.1997 otherwise) by 1995 c. 26, s. 75(8)(a) (with s. 121(5)); S.I. 1996/778, art. 2(5)(a), Sch. Pt. V; S.I. 1997/664, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. II (with transitional adaptations, modifications and savings in arts. 3-14)

Act restricted (7.10.1996) by 1992 c. 5, ss. 71(10A), 78(3A) (as inserted by 1995 c. 18, s. 32; S.I. 1996/2208, art. 2)

Act restricted (S.) (1.11.2001) by 2001 asp 10, s. 63, Sch. 7 paras. 9(4), 10(6); S.S.I. 2001/336, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. II (subject to transitional provisions and savings in art. 3)

Act restricted (24.3.2003) by 2002 c. 29, ss. 417(4), 458(1)(3); S.I. 2003/333, art. 2, Sch. (subject to transitional provisions and savings in arts. 3-13 (as amended by S.I. 2003/531, arts. 3, 4))

C3 Act excluded (E.W.S.) by Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 (c. 32, SIF 39:1), ss. 15(5)( a )(7), 17(3)

Act excluded by Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1987 (c. 41, SIF 39:1), ss. 30(6), 34(3)(4), 35(3), 36(3), 47(4)(a)

Act excluded (E.W.) by Dartford-Thurrock Crossing Act 1988 (c. 20, SIF 59), ss. 15(4), 19

Act excluded by Criminal Justice Act 1988 (c. 33, SIF 39:1), ss. 84(3), 86(3), 123, Sch. 8 para. 16

Act excluded by Social Security Act 1989 (c. 24, SIF 113:1), s. 22, Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 8(1)

Act excluded (25.4.1991) by Companies Act 1989 (c. 40), ss. 154, 155, 159(2), 180(2); S.I. 1991/878, art. 2, Sch.

Act excluded (13.2.1992) by Severn Bridges Act 1992 (c. 3), s. 20(4)

Act excluded (1.7.1992) by Social Security Administration Act 1992 (c. 5), ss. 89(1), 93(1), 192(4) (with s. 89(1))

Act excluded (31.10.1994) by 1994 c. 21, s. 29(2) (with s. 40(7)); S.I. 1994/2552, art. 2, Sch. 1

Act excluded (3.2.1995) by 1994 c. 37, ss. 32(2), 34(2), 69(2), Sch. 2 para. 5 (with s. 66(2))

Act excluded (31.3.1996) by 1995 c. 20, s. 110(1), Sch. 4 paras. 2(3), 3(3), 4(3); S.I. 1996/517, art. 3(2) (subject to arts. 4-6, Sch. 2)

Act excluded (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 43, ss. 44, 50(2), Sch. 2 paras. 2(3), 3(3), 4(3)

Act excluded (1.10.1996) by 1996 c. 52, s. 7, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 15(2); S.I. 1996/2402, art. 3 (subject to transitional provisions and savings in Sch.)

Act excluded (E.W.S.) (11.12.1999) by S.I. 1999/2979, reg. 14(2)

Act excluded (E.W.) (1.9.2001) by 2001 c. 17, s. 38, Sch. 6 paras. 9(3), 11(3) (with s. 78); S.I. 2001/2161, art. 2

Act excluded (S.) (1.11.2001) by 2001 asp 10, s. 63, Sch. 7 para. 12(3); S.S.I. 2001/336, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. II (subject to transitional provisions and savings in art. 3)

Act excluded (S.) (17.12.2001) by 2001 asp 13, s. 20(b), Sch. 6 paras. 9(3), 10(5); S.S.I. 2001/456, art. 2

Act excluded (24.3.2003) by 2002 c. 29, ss. 418(4), 426(7), 430(7), 458(1)(3); S.I. 2003/333, art. 2, Sch. (subject to transitional provisions and savings in arts. 3-13 (as amended by S.I. 2003/531, arts. 3, 4))

C4 Act modified by Financial Services Act 1986 (c. 60, SIF 69), s. 72(4)

Act modified by S.I. 1986/2142, arts. 1(2), 3(a), 15

Act modified by S.I. 1989/638, regs. 8(1), 21

Act modified (7.2.1994) by 1993 c. 48, ss. 144(7)(a), 147(3) (with s. 6(8)); S.I. 1994/86, art. 2

Act modified (31.10.1994) by 1994 c. 21, s. 36(1) (with s. 40(7)); S.I. 1994/2553, art. 2

Act modified (S.) (1.11.2001) by 2001 asp 10, s. 63, Sch. 7 para. 11; S.S.I. 2001/336, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. II (subject to transitional provisions and savings in art. 3)

Act modified (E.W.S.) (5.10.2004) by Energy Act 2004 (c. 20), ss. 159, 198, Sch. 20 paras. 41, 42; S.I. 2004/2575, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

Act modified (E.W.) (1.10.2005) by The Energy Administration Rules 2005 (S.I. 2005/2483), rules 3, 184

Act modified (S.) (6.4.2006) by The Energy Administration (Scotland) Rules 2006 (S.I. 2006/772), rules 3, 68

C5 Act applied (with modifications) by S.I. 1986/2142, arts. 1(2), 8(1)(b)(2), 13(3)(4)(6), 15, Sch. 2

Act applied (with modifications) (6.1.1997) by S.I. 1996/2827, reg. 25(1)-(4)

Act applied (with modifications) (E.W.S.) (6.4.2001) by S.I. 2001/1090, reg. 5, Schs. 3, 4 (as amended (4.3.2004) by S.I. 2004/355, art. 10 and (1.10.2005) by S.I. 2005/1989, reg. 3, Sch. 2 (with reg. 4))

Act applied in part (with modifications) (E.W.S.) (6.4.2001) by S.I. 2001/1090, reg. 5, Schs. 3, 4 (as amended (4.3.2004) by S.I. 2004/355, art. 10 and (1.10.2005) by S.I. 2005/1989, reg. 3, Sch. 2 (with reg. 4))

Act applied (with modifications) (1.12.2001) by S.I. 2001/1228, regs. 1(2), 31(1) (with reg. 1(3)); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

Act applied (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 367(7); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

C6 Act extended by Banking Act 1987 (c. 22, SIF 10), s. 92(2)

Act extended (E.W.) by Water Act 1989 (c. 15, SIF 130), s. 23, Sch. 6 Pt. II para. 11(1)(2)(3) (with ss. 58(7), 101(1), 141(6), 160(1)(2)(4), 163, 189(4)?(10), 190, 193(1), Sch. 26 paras. 3(1)(2), 17, 40(4), 57(6), 58)

Act extended (E.W.) (1.12.1991) by Water Industry Act 1991 (c. 56), ss. 23(3), 223(2), Sch. 3 Pt. II paras.11(1)-(3), 12(2) ( with ss. 82(3), 186(1), 222(1), Sch. 14 para. 6).

Act (except s. 413, Sch. 7) extended (E.W.) (1.1.1992) by S.I. 1991/2684, arts. 2(1), 4, Sch.1.

Act extended (1.10.1996) by 1996 c. 52. s. 7, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 14(1); S.I. 1996/2402, art. 3 (subject to transitional provisions and savings in Sch.)

Act (except ss. 8-10, 24-26) extended (15.7.2003) by 1999 c. 29, s. 220(3), Sch. 14 Pt. III para. 20; S.I. 2003/1920, art. 2

C7 Act: power to modify conferred (2.4.2001) by 2000 c. 39, s. 7(2); S.I. 2001/776, art. 2(1)(a) (subject to transitional provisions in art. 3)

Act: power to apply (with modifications) conferred (E.W.S.) (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 254(1), 279 (with s. 249(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

Act: power to amend conferred (E.W.) (1.4.2004) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 264(2), 279 (with s. 249(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(2), Sch. 2 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

C8 Act modified (1.8.2007) by The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation Regulations 2007 (S.I. 2007/1949), reg. 7, Sch. Pt. 2

C9 Act applied (with modifications) (6.4.2008) by Serious Crime Act 2007 (c. 27), ss. 27(2)-(4), 94; S.I. 2008/755, art. 15(1)(f)

C10 Act applied in part (with modifications) (8.10.2008 at 12.15 p.m.) by The Kaupthing Singer & Friedlander Limited Transfer of Certain Rights and Liabilities Order 2008 (S.I. 2008/2674), Pt. 5 (arts. 19-27)

C11 Act applied in part (with modifications) (7.10.2008 at 9.30 a.m.) by The Heritable Bank plc Transfer of Certain Rights and Liabilities Order 2008 (S.I. 2008/2644), Pt. 4 (arts. 18-25)

C12 Act excluded (26.1.2009) by 1998 c. 17 s. 38A(6) (as inserted by Energy Act 2008 (c. 32), ss. 74(1), 110; S.I. 2009/45, art. 2(b)(i))

C13 Act excluded (6.4.2009) by Energy Act 2008 (c. 32), ss. 56(5), 110; S.I. 2009/45, art. 4(b)(i)

C14 Act excluded (E.W.) (1.4.2010) by Housing and Regeneration Act 2008 (c. 17), ss. 167(5)(b), 325; S.I. 2010/862, art. 2 (with Sch.)

C15 Act: power to amend conferred (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.02.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), s. 158(2)(b) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

C16 Act: power to amend conferred (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.02.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), s. 159(2)(b) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

C17 Act applied in part by S.I. 1989/638, reg. 19 (as amended (1.10.2009) by The European Economic Interest Grouping (Amendment) Regulations 2009 (S.I. 2009/2399), reg. 20 (with reg. 2))

C18 Act applied (1.11.2009) by The Water Industry (Special Administration) Rules 2009 (S.I. 2009/2477), rule 102 (with rules 3(2), 4)

C19 Act applied (with modifications) (23.11.2009) by The Scottish and Northern Ireland Banknote Regulations 2009 (S.I. 2009/3056), reg. 29, Sch. 1 para. 2

C20 Act: power to modify conferred (E.W.) (1.10.2010 for specified purposes) by Flood and Water Management Act 2010 (c. 29), ss. 34, 49(3), Sch. 5 para. 3 (with s. 49(1)(6)); S.I. 2010/2169, art. 4, Sch.

C21 Act applied (with modifications) (8.2.2011) by The Investment Bank Special Administration Regulations 2011 (S.I. 2011/245), regs. 8(7), 9, 15, 16-21, 24, 25, Schs. 1-4

C22 Act modified (30.6.2011) by The Investment Bank Special Administration (England and Wales) Rules 2011 (S.I. 2011/1301), rule 334 (with rule 5(2))

C23 Act modified (1.10.2011) by Postal Services Act 2011 (c. 5), ss. 73, 93(2)(3), Sch. 10 paras. 40, 41; S.I. 2011/2329, art. 3 (with arts. 4, 5)

C24 Act: power to modify conferred (1.10.2011) by Postal Services Act 2011 (c. 5), ss. 73, 93(2)(3), Sch. 10 para. 46; S.I. 2011/2329, art. 3 (with arts. 4, 5)

C25 Act applied in part (with modifications) (23.12.2011) by The Legal Services Act 2007 (Designation as a Licensing Authority) (No. 2) Order 2011 (S.I. 2011/2866), art. 8(1), Sch. 2

C26 Act excluded (S.) (prosp.) by Housing (Scotland) Act 2010 (asp 17), s. 106(7)(b)

Commencement Information

I1 Act not in force at Royal Assent, see s. 443


The First Group of Parts (E+W+S)
Company Insolvency; Companies Winding Up



Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C27 First Group of Parts (ss. 1-251) applied (with modifications) (15.12.2006) by The Banks (Former Authorised Institutions) (Insolvency) Order 2006 (S.I. 2006/3107), art. 3, Sch.


Part I (E+W+S)
Company Voluntary Arrangements



Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C28 Pt. I (ss. 1-7), Pt. II (ss. 8-27) modified by Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986 (c. 46, SIF 27), ss. 21(2), 25

C29 Pts. I-VII (ss. 1-251) applied (with modifications) by S.I. 1989/1276, arts. 2, 3

Pt. I (ss. 1-7) applied with modifications by S.I. 1986/2142, arts. 1(2), 11, 13(3), 15

Pt. I (ss. 1-7) applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 4(1), Sch. 1 (as amended (1.1.2003) by S.I. 2002/2708, arts. 4-6 (with transitional provisions in art. 11) and (1.7.2005) by S.I. 2005/1516, art. 6)

Pt. I (ss. 1-7) applied (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 5(1)

Pt. I (ss. 1-7) applied (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by 1986 c. 53, Sch. 15A (as inserted by 1997 c. 32, s. 39(2), Sch. 6 para. 1(2)(a); S.I. 1997/2668, art. 2, Sch. Pt. I(i))

C30 Pt. I: power to apply or incorporate conferred (6.4.2001) by 2000 c. 12, s. 14; S.I. 2000/3316, art. 2

Pt. I: power to apply (with modifications) conferred (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 255(2)(a), 279 (with s. 249(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

Pt. 1: power to apply (with modifications) conferred (20.11.2003 for specified purposes and 1.4.2004 otherwise) by Health and Social Care (Community Health and Standards) Act 2003 (c. 43), ss. 24(2), 26, 199; S.I. 2004/759, art. 2

Pt. 1: power to apply (with modifications) conferred (E.W.) (1.3.2007) by National Health Service Act 2006 (c. 41), ss. 53(2), 55, 277

C31 Pt. 1 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.02.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), s. 113(6)-(9) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.


The Proposal (E+W+S)


1 Those who may propose an arrangement. (E+W+S)

(1) The directors of a company [F1 (other than one which is in administration or being wound up) ] may make a proposal under this Part to the company and to its creditors for a composition in satisfaction of its debts or a scheme of arrangement of its affairs (from here on referred to, in either case, as a “voluntary arrangement”).

(2) A proposal under this Part is one which provides for some person (“the nominee”) to act in relation to the voluntary arrangement either as trustee or otherwise for the purpose of supervising its implementation; and the nominee must be a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner [F2 or authorised to act as nominee, in relation to the voluntary arrangement] .

(3) Such a proposal may also be made—

[F3 (a) where the company is in administration, by the administrator,]
(b) where the company is being wound up, by the liquidator.
[F4 (4) In this Part “company” means—

[F5 (a) a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in England and Wales or Scotland;]
(b) a company incorporated in an EEA State other than the United Kingdom; or
(c) a company not incorporated in an EEA State but having its centre of main interests in a member State other than Denmark.
(5) In subsection (4) , in relation to a company, “centre of main interests” has the same meaning as in the EC Regulation and, in the absence of proof to the contrary, is presumed to be the place of its registered office (within the meaning of that Regulation).

(6) If a company incorporated outside the United Kingdom has a principal place of business in Northern Ireland, no proposal under this Part shall be made in relation to it unless it also has a principal place of business in England and Wales or Scotland (or both in England and Wales or Scotland).]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F1 Words in s. 1(1) substituted (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 10(a) (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

F2 Words in s. 1(2) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 2; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F3 S. 1(3)(a) substituted (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 10(b) (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

F4 S. 1(4)-(6) substituted (13.4.2005) for s. 1(4) by The Insolvency Act 1986 (Amendment) Regulations 2005 (S.I. 2005/879), reg. 2(2) (with reg. 3)

F5 S. 1(4)(a) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 71(2)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)


[F6 1A Moratorium. (E+W+S)

(1) Where the directors of an eligible company intend to make a proposal for a voluntary arrangement, they may take steps to obtain a moratorium for the company.

(2) The provisions of Schedule A1 to this Act have effect with respect to—

(a) companies eligible for a moratorium under this section,
(b) the procedure for obtaining such a moratorium,
(c) the effects of such a moratorium, and
(d) the procedure applicable (in place of sections 2 to 6 and 7) in relation to the approval and implementation of a voluntary arrangement where such a moratorium is or has been in force.]
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F6 S. 1A inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 1, Sch. 1 para. 2; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)


2 Procedure where nominee is not the liquidator or administrator. (E+W+S)

(1) This section applies where the nominee under section 1 is not the liquidator or administrator of the company [F7 and the directors do not propose to take steps to obtain a moratorium under section 1A for the company] .

(2) The nominee shall, within 28 days (or such longer period as the court may allow) after he is given notice of the proposal for a voluntary arrangement, submit a report to the court stating—


[F8 whether, in his opinion, the proposed voluntary arrangement has a reasonable prospect of being approved and implemented,
F8 (aa) ] whether, in his opinion, meetings of the company and of its creditors should be summoned to consider the proposal, and
(b) if in his opinion such meetings should be summoned, the date on which, and time and place at which, he proposes the meetings should be held.
(3) For the purposes of enabling the nominee to prepare his report, the person intending to make the proposal shall submit to the nominee—

(a) a document setting out the terms of the proposed voluntary arrangement, and
(b) a statement of the company’s affairs containing—
(i) such particulars of its creditors and of its debts and other liabilities and of its assets as may be prescribed, and
(ii) such other information as may be prescribed.
[F9 (4) The court may—

(a) on an application made by the person intending to make the proposal, in a case where the nominee has failed to submit the report required by this section or has died, or
(b) on an application made by that person or the nominee, in a case where it is impracticable or inappropriate for the nominee to continue to act as such,
direct that the nominee be replaced as such by another person qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner, or authorised to act as nominee, in relation to the voluntary arrangement.]
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F7 Words in s. 2(1) added (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 1, Sch. 1 para. 3; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F8 Words in s. 2(2)(a) and “(aa)" inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 3(a); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F9 S. 2(4) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 3(b); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)


3 Summoning of meetings. (E+W+S)

(1) Where the nominee under section 1 is not the liquidator or administrator, and it has been report to the court that such meetings as are mentioned in section 2(2) should be summoned, the person making the report shall (unless the court otherwise directs) summon those meetings for the time, date and place proposed in the report.

(2) Where the nominee is the liquidator or administrator, he shall summon meetings of the company and of its creditors to consider the proposal for such a time, date and place as he thinks fit.

(3) The persons to be summoned to a creditors’ meeting under this section are every creditor of the company of whose claim and address the person summoning the meeting is aware.

Consideration and implementation of proposal (E+W+S)


4 Decisions of meetings. (E+W+S)

(1) The meetings summoned under section 3 shall decide whether to approve the proposed voluntary arrangement (with or without modifications).

(2) The modifications may include one conferring the functions proposed to be conferred on the nominee on another person qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner [F10 or authorised to act as nominee, in relation to the voluntary arrangement] .

But they shall not include any modification by virtue of which the proposal ceases to be a proposal such as is mentioned in section 1.
(3) A meeting so summoned shall not approve any proposal or modification which affects the right of a secured creditor of the company to enforce his security, except with the concurrence of the creditor concerned.

(4) Subject as follows, a meeting so summoned shall not approve any proposal or modification under which—

(a) any preferential debt of the company is to be paid otherwise than in priority to such of its debts as are not preferential debts, or
(b) a preferential creditor of the company is to be paid an amount in respect of a preferential debt that bears to that debt a smaller proportion than is borne to another preferential debt by the amount that is to be paid in respect of that other debt.
However, the meeting may approve such a proposal or modification with the concurrence of the preferential creditor concerned.
(5) Subject as above, each of the meetings shall be conducted in accordance with the rules.

(6) After the conclusion of either meeting in accordance with the rules, the chairman of the meeting shall report the result of the meeting to the court, and, immediately after reporting to the court, shall give notice of the result of the meeting to such persons as may be prescribed.

(7) References in this section to preferential debts and preferential creditors are to be read in accordance with section 386 in Part XII of this Act.

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F10 Words in s. 4(2) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 4; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C32 S. 4 modified (20.4.2003) by The Insurers (Reorganisation and Winding Up) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1102), reg. 33(1)(2) (with reg. 3)

S. 4 modified (18.2.2004) by The Insurers (Reorganisation and Winding Up) Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/353), reg. 33(1)(2) (with reg. 3) (as amended (3.3.2004) by S.I. 2004/546, reg. 2(5) and modified (10.8.2005) by S.I. 2005/1998, regs. 2(3), 40(1)-(4))


[F11 4A Approval of arrangement. (E+W+S)

(1) This section applies to a decision, under section 4, with respect to the approval of a proposed voluntary arrangement.

(2) The decision has effect if, in accordance with the rules—

(a) it has been taken by both meetings summoned under section 3, or
(b) (subject to any order made under subsection (4) ) it has been taken by the creditors’ meeting summoned under that section.
(3) If the decision taken by the creditors’ meeting differs from that taken by the company meeting, a member of the company may apply to the court.

(4) An application under subsection (3) shall not be made after the end of the period of 28 days beginning with—

(a) the day on which the decision was taken by the creditors’ meeting, or
(b) where the decision of the company meeting was taken on a later day, that day.
(5) Where a member of a regulated company, within the meaning given by paragraph 44 of Schedule A1, applies to the court under subsection (3) , the Financial Services Authority is entitled to be heard on the application.

(6) On an application under subsection (3) , the court may—

(a) order the decision of the company meeting to have effect instead of the decision of the creditors’ meeting, or
(b) make such other order as it thinks fit.]
Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F11 S. 4A inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, ss. 2, 16(1), Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 5; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C33 S. 4A(2) modified (1.1.2003) by 1986 c. 53, Sch. 15A para. 8A (as inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. II para. 14(3)); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)


5 Effect of approval. (E+W+S)

[F12 (1) This section applies where a decision approving a voluntary arrangement has effect under section 4A.]

(2) The F13 . . . voluntary arrangement—

(a) takes effect as if made by the company at the creditors’ meeting, and
[F14 (b) binds every person who in accordance with the rules—
(i) was entitled to vote at that meeting (whether or not he was present or represented at it) , or
(ii) would have been so entitled if he had had notice of it,
as if he were a party to the voluntary arrangement.
(2A) If—

(a) when the arrangement ceases to have effect any amount payable under the arrangement to a person bound by virtue of subsection (2) (b) (ii) has not been paid, and
(b) the arrangement did not come to an end prematurely,
the company shall at that time become liable to pay to that person the amount payable under the arrangement.]
(3) Subject as follows, if the company is being wound up or [F15 is in administration] , the court may do one or both of the following, namely—

(a) by order stay or sist all proceedings in the winding up or [F15 provide for the appointment of the administrator to cease to have effect] ;
(b) give such directions with respect to the conduct of the winding up or the administration as it thinks appropriate for facilitating the implementation of the F13 . . . voluntary arrangement.
(4) The court shall not make an order under subsection (3) (a) —

(a) at any time before the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the first day on which each of the reports required by section 4(6) has been made to the court, or
(b) at any time when an application under the next section or an appeal in respect of such an application is pending, or at any time in the period within which such an appeal may be brought.
[F16 (5) Where the company is in energy administration, the court shall not make an order or give a direction under subsection (3) unless—

(a) the court has given the Secretary of State or the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority a reasonable opportunity of making representations to it about the proposed order or direction; and
(b) the order or direction is consistent with the objective of the energy administration.
(6) In subsection (5) “in energy administration” and “objective of the energy administration” are to be construed in accordance with Schedule B1 to this Act, as applied by Part 1 of Schedule 20 to the Energy Act 2004.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F12 S. 5(1) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 6(a); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F13 Words in s. 5(2)(3) repealed (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, ss. 2, 15, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 6(b), Sch. 5; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F14 S. 5(2)(b)(2A) substituted (1.1.2003) for s. 5(2)(b) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 6(c); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F15 Words in s. 5(3) substituted (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 11(a)(b) (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

F16 S. 5(5)(6) inserted (5.10.2004) by Energy Act 2004 (c. 20), ss. 159(1), 198, Sch. 20 para. 43; S.I. 2004/2575, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C34 S. 5 restricted (S.) (1.11.2001) by 2001 asp 10, s. 63, Sch. 7 para. 10(5); S.S.I. 2001/336, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. II (subject to transitional provisions and savings in art. 3)

C35 S. 5 modified (1.10.2011) by Postal Services Act 2011 (c. 5), ss. 73, 93(2)(3), Sch. 10 para. 43; S.I. 2011/2329, art. 3 (with arts. 4, 5)


6 Challenge of decisions. (E+W+S)

(1) Subject to this section, an application to the court may be made, by any of the persons specified below, on one or both of the following grounds, namely—

(a) that a voluntary arrangement [F17 which has effect under section 4A] unfairly prejudices the interests of a creditor, member or contributory of the company;
(b) that there has been some material irregularity at or in relation to either of the meetings.
(2) The persons who may apply under [F18 subsection (1) ] are—

(a) a person entitled, in accordance with the rules, to vote at either of the meetings;
[F19 (aa) a person who would have been entitled, in accordance with the rules, to vote at the creditors’ meeting if he had had notice of it]
(b) the nominee or any person who has replaced him under section 2(4) or 4(2) ; and
(c) if the company is being wound up or [F20 is in administration] , the liquidator or administrator.
[F21 (2A) Subject to this section, where a voluntary arrangement in relation to a company in energy administration is approved at the meetings summoned under section 3, an application to the court may be made—

(a) by the Secretary of State, or
(b) with the consent of the Secretary of State, by the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority,
on the ground that the voluntary arrangement is not consistent with the achievement of the objective of the energy administration.]
(3) An application under this section shall not be made[F22 (a) ] after the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the first day on which each of the reports required by section 4(6) has been made to the court [F23 or

(b) in the case of a person who was not given notice of the creditors’ meeting, after the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the day on which he became aware that the meeting had taken place,
but (subject to that) an application made by a person within subsection (2) (aa) on the ground that the voluntary arrangement prejudices his interests may be made after the arrangement has ceased to have effect, unless it came to an end prematurely.]
(4) Where on such an application the court is satisfied as to either of the grounds mentioned in subsection (1) [F24 or, in the case of an application under subsection (2A) , as to the ground mentioned in that subsection] , it may do one or both of the following, namely—

(a) revoke or suspend [F25 any decision approving the voluntary arrangement which has effect under section 4A] or, in a case falling within subsection (1) (b) , any [F26 decision taken by the meeting in question which has effect under that section] ;
(b) give a direction to any person for the summoning of further meetings to consider any revised proposal the person who made the original proposal may make or, in the case falling within subsection (1) (b) , a further company or (as the case may be) creditors’ meeting to reconsider the original proposal.
(5) Where at any time after giving a direction under subsection (4) (b) for the summoning of meetings to consider a revised proposal the court is satisfied that the person who made the original proposal does not intend to submit a revised proposal, the court shall revoke the direction and revoke or suspend any [F27 decision approving the voluntary arrangement which has effect under section 4A] .

(6) In a case where the court, on an application under this section with respect to any meeting—

(a) gives a direction under subsection (4) (b) , or
(b) revokes or suspends an approval under subsection (4) (a) or (5) ,
the court may give such supplemental directions as it thinks fit and, in particular, directions with respect to things done [F28 under the voluntary arrangement since it took effect] .
(7) Except in pursuance of the preceding provisions of this section, [F29 a decision taken] at a meeting summoned under section 3 is not invalidated by any irregularity at or in relation to the meeting.

[F30 (8) In this section “in energy administration” and “objective of the energy administration” are to be construed in accordance with Schedule B1 to this Act, as applied by Part 1 of Schedule 20 to the Energy Act 2004.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F17 Words in s. 6(1)(a) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(2); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F18 Words in s. 6(2) substituted (5.10.2004) by Energy Act 2004 (c. 20), ss. 159(1), 198, Sch. 20 para. 44(2); S.I. 2004/2575, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F19 S. 6(2)(aa) inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(3); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F20 Words in s. 6(2)(c) substituted (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 12 (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

F21 S. 6(2A) inserted (5.10.2004) by Energy Act 2004 (c. 20), ss. 159(1), 198, Sch. 20 para. 44(3); S.I. 2004/2575, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F22 In s. 6(3) “(a)" inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(4)(a); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F23 S. 6(3)(b) and words inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(4)(b); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F24 Words in s. 6(4) inserted (5.10.2004) by Energy Act 2004 (c. 20), ss. 159(1), 198, Sch. 20 para. 44(4); S.I. 2004/2575, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F25 Words in s. 6(4)(a) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(5)(a); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F26 Words in s. 6(4)(a) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(5)(b); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F27 Words in s. 6(5) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(6); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F28 Words in s. 6(6) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(7); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F29 Words in s. 6(7) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 7(8); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F30 S. 6(8) inserted (5.10.2004) by Energy Act 2004 (c. 20), ss. 159(1), 198, Sch. 20 para. 44(5); S.I. 2004/2575, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C36 S. 6 amended (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 356(2); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

S. 6 amended (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 8, s. 356(1) (as substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 15(3)); S.I. 2002/2711, art 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

C37 S. 6 modified (1.10.2011) by Postal Services Act 2011 (c. 5), ss. 73, 93(2)(3), Sch. 10 para. 44; S.I. 2011/2329, art. 3 (with arts. 4, 5)


[F31 6A False representations, etc. (E+W+S)

(1) If, for the purpose of obtaining the approval of the members or creditors of a company to a proposal for a voluntary arrangement, a person who is an officer of the company—

(a) makes any false representation, or
(b) fraudulently does, or omits to do, anything,
he commits an offence.
(2) Subsection (1) applies even if the proposal is not approved.

(3) For purposes of this section “officer” includes a shadow director.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable to imprisonment or a fine, or both.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F31 S. 6A inserted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 8; S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)


7 Implementation of proposal. (E+W+S)

(1) This section applies where a voluntary arrangement [F32 has effect under section 4A] .

(2) The person who is for the time being carrying out in relation to the voluntary arrangement the functions conferred—

[F33 (a) on the nominee by virtue of the approval given at one or both of the meetings summoned under section 3]
(b) by virtue of section 2(4) or 4(2) on a person other than the nominee,
shall be known as the supervisor of the voluntary arrangement.
(3) If any of the company’s creditors or any other person is dissatisfied by any act, omission or decision of the supervisor, he may apply to the court; and on the application the court may—

(a) confirm, reverse or modify any act or decision of the supervisor,
(b) give him directions, or
(c) make such other order as it thinks fit.
(4) The supervisor—

(a) may apply to the court for directions in relation to any particular matter arising under the voluntary arrangement, and
(b) is included among the persons who may apply to the court for the winding up of the company or for an administration order to be made in relation to it.
(5) The court may, whenever—

(a) it is expedient to appoint a person to carry out the functions of the supervisor, and
(b) it is inexpedient, difficult or impracticable for an appointment to be made without the assistance of the court,
make an order appointing a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner [F34 or authorised to act as supervisor, in relation to the voluntary arrangement] , either in substitution for the existing supervisor or to fill a vacancy.
(6) The power conferred by subsection (5) is exercisable so as to increase the number of persons exercising the functions of supervisor or, where there is more than one person exercising those functions, so as to replace one or more of those persons.

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F32 Words in s. 7(1) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 9(a); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F33 S. 7(2)(a) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 9(b); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

F34 Words in s. 7(5) substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 2, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 9(c); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2, (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C38 S. 7 amended (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 8, s. 356(1) (as substituted (1.1.2003) by 2000 c. 39, s. 15(3)); S.I. 2002/2711, art. 2 (subject to transitional provisions in arts. 3-5)