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MOTOR VEHICLES ACT

Ministry of Law and Justice

Act nº 59 of 1988


  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11
  • Chapter 12
  • Chapter 13
  • Chapter 14
  • Schedules
  • Amending Acts
  • Act nº 59 of 1988

Preamble

THE MOTOR VEHICLES ACT, 1988

[Act, No. 59 of 1988]

[14th October, 1988]

PREAMBLE

An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to motor vehicles.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-ninth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

Chapter 1

Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall come into force on such date1as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint; and different dates may be appointed for different States and any reference in this Act to the commencement of this Act shall, in relation to a State, be construed as a reference to the coming into force of this Act in that State.

1.Came into force on 1-7-1989. V ide S.O. 368 (E), dated 22nd May, 1989, published in the Gazette of India, Extra., Part II, Section 3 (ii), dated 22nd May, 1989.


Section 2. Definitions

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-

(1) "area", in relation to any provision of this Act, means such area as the State Government may, having regard to the requirements of that provision, specify by notification in the Official Gazette;

(2) "articulated vehicle" means a motor vehicle to which a semi-trailer is attached;

(3) "axle weight" means in relation to an axle of a vehicle the total weight transmitted by the several wheels attached to that axle to the surface on which the vehicle rests;

(4) "certificate of registration" means the certificate issued by a competent authority to the effect that a motor vehicle has been duly registered in accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV;

(5) "conductor" in relation to a stage carriage, means a person engaged in collecting fares from passengers, regulating their entrance into, or exit from, the stage carriage and performing such other functions as may be prescribed;

(6) "conductor's licence" means the licence issued by a competent authority under Chapter III authorising the person specified therein to act as a conductor;

(7) "contract carriage" means a motor vehicle which carries a passenger or passengers for hire or reward and is engaged under a contract, whether expressed or implied, for the use of such vehicle as a whole for the carriage of passengers mentioned therein and entered into by a person with a holder of a permit in relation to such vehicle or any person authorised by him in this behalf on a fixed or an agreed rate or sum-

(a) on a time basis, whether or not with reference to any route or distance; or

(b) from one point to another,

and in either case, without stopping to pick up or set down passengers not included in the contract anywhere during the journey, and includes-

(i) a maxicab; and

(ii) a motorcar notwithstanding the separate fares are charged for its passengers;

(8) "dealer" includes a person who is engaged-

1 [***]

(b) in building bodies for attachment to chassis; or

(c) in the repair of motor vehicles; or

(d) in the business of hypothecation, leasing or hire-purchase of motor vehicle;

(9) "driver" includes, in relation to a motor vehicle which is drawn by another motor vehicle, the person who acts as a steersman of the drawn vehicle;

(10) "driving licence" means the licence issued by a competent authority under Chapter II authorising the person specified therein to drive, otherwise than as a learner, a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle of any specified class or description;

(11) "educational institution bus" means an omnibus, which is owned by a college, school or other educational institution and used solely for the purpose of transporting students or staff of the educational institution in connection with any of its activities;

(12) "fares" includes sums payable for a season ticket or in respect of the hire of a contract carriage;

(13) "goods" includes livestock, and anything (other than equipment ordinarily used with the vehicle) carried by a vehicle except living persons, but does not include luggage or personal effects carried in a motor car or in a trailer attached to a motor car or the personal luggage of passengers travelling in the vehicle;

(14) "goods carriage" means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted for use solely for the carriage of goods, or any motor vehicle not so constructed or adapted when used for the carriage of goods;

(15) "gross vehicle weight" means in respect of any vehicle the total weight of the vehicle and load certified and registered by the registering authority as permissible for that vehicle;

(16) "heavy goods vehicle" means any goods carriage the gross vehicle weight of which, or a tractor or a road-roller the unladen weight of either of which, exceeds 12,000 kilograms;

(17) "heavy passenger motor vehicle" means any public service vehicle or private service vehicle or educational institution bus or omnibus the gross vehicle weight of any of which, or a motor car the unladen weight of which, exceeds 12,000 kilograms;

(18) "invalid carriage" means a motor vehicle specially designed and constructed, and not merely adapted, for the use of a person suffering from some physical defect or disability, and used solely by or for such a person;

(19) "learner's licence" means the licence issued by a competent authority under Chapter II authorising the person specified therein to drive as a learner, a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle of any specified class or description;

(20) "licensing authority" means an authority empowered to issue licences under Chapter II or, as the case may be, Chapter III;

(21) "light motor vehicle" means a transport vehicle or omnibus the gross vehicle weight of either of which or a motor car or tractor or road-roller the unladen weight of any of which, does not exceed 2 [7500] kilograms;

3 [(21A) "manufacturer" means a person who is engaged in the manufacture of motor vehicles;]

(22) "maxicab" means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six passengers, but not more than twelve passengers, excluding the driver, for hire or reward;

(23) "medium goods vehicle" means any goods carriage other than a light motor vehicle or a heavy goods vehicle;

(24) "medium passenger motor vehicle" means any public service vehicle or private service vehicle, or educational institution bus other than a motor cycle, invalid carriage, light motor vehicle or heavy passenger motor vehicle;

(25) "motorcab" means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry not more than six passengers excluding the driver for hire or reward;

(26) "motor car" means any motor vehicle other than a transport vehicle, omnibus, road-roller, tractor, motor cycle or invalid carriage;

(27) "motor cycle'" means a two-wheeled motor vehicle, inclusive of any detachable side-car having an extra wheel, attached to the motor vehicle;

(28) "motor vehicle" or "vehicle" means any mechanically propelled vehicle adapted for use upon roads whether the power of propulsion is transmitted thereto from an external or internal source and includes a chassis to which a body has not been attached and a trailer; but does not include a vehicle running upon fixed rails or a vehicle of a special type adapted for use only in a factory or in any other enclosed premises or a vehicle having less than four wheels fitted with engine capacity of not exceeding 4 [twenty-five cubic centimetres];

(29) "omnibus" means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six persons excluding the driver;

(30) "owner" means a person in whose name a motor vehicle stands registered, and where such person is a minor, the guardian of such minor, and in relation to a motor vehicle which is the subject of a hire-purchase, agreement, or an agreement of lease or an agreement of hypothecation, the person in possession of the vehicle under that agreement;

(31) "permit" means a permit issued by a State or Regional Transport Authority or an authority prescribed in this behalf under this Act authorising the use of a motor vehicle as a transport vehicle;

(32) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(33) "private service vehicle" means a motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six persons excluding the driver and ordinarily used by or on behalf of the owner of such vehicle for the purpose of carrying persons for, or in connection with, his trade or business otherwise than for hire or reward but does not include a motor vehicle used for public purposes;

(34) "public place" means a road, street, way or other place, whether a thoroughfare or not, to which the public have a right of access, and includes any place or stand at which passengers are picked up or set down by a stage carriage;

(35) "public service vehicle" means any motor vehicle used or adapted to be used for the carriage of passengers for hire or reward, and includes a maxicab, a motorcab, contract carriage, and stage carriage;

(36) "registered axle weight" means in respect of the axle of any vehicle, the axle weight certified and registered by the registering authority as permissible for that axle;

(37) "registering authority" means an authority empowered to register motor vehicles under Chapter IV;

(38) "route" means a line of travel which specifies the highway which may be traversed by a motor vehicle between one terminus and another;

5 [(39) "semi-trailer" means a vehicle not mechanically propelled (other than a trailer), which is intended to he connected to a motor vehicle and which is so constructed that a portion of it is super-imposed on, and a part of whose weight is borne by, that motor vehicle;]

(40) "stage carriage" means a motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six passengers excluding the driver for hire or reward at separate fares paid by or for individual passengers, either for the whole journey or for stages of the journey;

(41) "State Government" in relation to a Union territory means the Administrator thereof appointed under article 239 of the Constitution;

(42) "State transport undertaking" means any undertaking providing road transport service, where such undertaking is carried on by,-

(i) the Central Government or a State Government;

(ii) any Road Transport Corporation established under section 3 of the Road Transport Corporations Act, 1950 (64 of 1950);

(iii) any municipality or any corporation or company owned or controlled by the Central Government or one or more State Governments, or by the Central Government and one or more State Governments.

6 [(iv) Zila Parishad or any other similar local authority.]

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause, "road transport service" means a service of motor vehicles carrying passengers or goods or both by road for hire or reward;

(43) "tourist vehicle" means a contract carriage, constructed or adapted and equipped and maintained in accordance with such specifications as may be prescribed in this behalf;

(44) "tractor" means a motor vehicle which is not itself constructed to carry any load (other than equipment used for the purpose of propulsion); but excludes a road-roller;

(45) "traffic signs" includes all signals, warning sign posts, direction posts, markings on the road or other devices for the information, guidance or direction of drivers of motor vehicles;

(46) "trailer" means any vehicle, other than a semi-trailer and a side-car, drawn or intended to be drawn by a motor vehicle;

(47) "transport vehicle" means a public service vehicle, a goods carriage, an educational institution bus or a private service vehicle;

(48) "unladen weight" means the weight of a vehicle or trailer including all equipment ordinarily used with the vehicle or trailer when working, but excluding the weight of a driver or attendant; and where alternative parts or bodies are used the unladen weight of the vehicle means the weight of the vehicle with the heaviest such alternative part or body;

(49) "weight" means the total weight transmitted for the time being by the wheels of a vehicle to the surface on which the vehicle rests.

1. Sub-clause (a) omitted by Act 54 of 1994, section 2 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

2. Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, section 2, for "6000" (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

3. Inserted by Act 54 of 1994, section 2 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

4. Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, section 2, for "thirty-five cubic centimetres" (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

5. Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, section 2, for clause (39) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

6. Inserted by Act 54 of 1994, section 2 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).


Chapter 2

Section 3. Necessity for driving licence

(1) No person shall drive a motor vehicle in any public place unless he holds an effective driving licence issued to him authorising him to drive the vehicle; and no person shall so drive a transport vehicle other than1[a motor cab or motor cycle] hired for his own use or rented under any scheme made under subsection (2) of section 75] unless his driving licence specifically entitles him so to do.

(2) The conditions subject to which sub-section (1) shall not apply to a person receiving instructions in driving a motor vehicle shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

1. Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, Section 3, for "a motor cab" (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).


Section 4. Age limit in connection with driving of motor vehicles

(1) No person under the age of eighteen years shall drive a motor vehicle in any public place:

Provided that1[a motor cycle with engine capacity not exceeding 50cc] may be driven in a public place by a person after attaining the age of sixteen years.

(2) Subject to the provisions of section 18, no person under the age of twenty years shall drive a transport vehicle in any public place.

(3) No learner's licence or driving licence shall be issued to any person to drive a vehicle of the class to which he has made an application unless he is eligible to drive that class of vehicle under this section.

1.Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, Section 4, for "a motor cycle without gear" (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).


Section 5. Responsibility of owners of motor vehicles for contravention of sections 3 and 4

No owner or person in charge of a motor vehicle shall cause or permit any person who does not satisfy the provisions of section 3 or section 4 to drive the vehicle.

Section 6. Restrictions on the holding of driving licences

(1) No person shall, while he holds any driving licence for the time being in force, hold any other driving licence except a learner's licence or a driving licence issued in accordance with the provisions of section 18 or a document authorising, in accordance with the rules made under section 139, the person specified therein to drive a motor vehicle.

(2) No holder of a driving licence or a learner's licence shall permit it to be used by any other person.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prevent a licensing authority having the jurisdiction referred to in sub-section (1) of section 9 from adding to the classes of vehicles which the driving licence authorises the holder to drive.

Section 7. Restrictions on the granting of learner's licences for certain vehicles

1 [(1)No person shall be granted a learner's licence to drive a transport vehicleunless he has held a driving licence to drive a light motor vehicle for at leastone year.]

(2)No person under the age of eighteen years shall be granted a learner's licenceto drive a motor cycle without gear except with the consent in writing of theperson having the care of the person desiring the learner's licence.

1.Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, Section 5, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f.14-11-1994.)


Section 8. Grant of learner's licence

(1) Any person who is not disqualified under section 4 for driving a motor vehicle and who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving licence may, subject to the provisions of section 7, apply to the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area-

(i) in which he ordinarily resides or carries on business, or

(ii) in which the school or establishment referred to in section 12 from where he intends to receive instruction in driving a motor vehicle is situate,

for the issue 10 him of a learner's licence.

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be in such form and shall be accompanied by such documents and with such fee as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(3) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by a medical certificate in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government and signed by such registered medical practitioner, as the State Government or any person authorised in this behalf by the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint for this purpose:

1 [Provided that no such medical certificate is required for licence to drive a vehicle other than a transport vehicle.]

(4) If, from the application or from the medical certificate referred to in sub-section (3), it appears that the applicant is suffering from any disease or disability which is likely to cause the driving by him of a minor vehicle of the class which he would be authorised by the learner's licence applied for to drive to be a source of danger to the public or to the passengers, the licensing authority shall refuse to issue the learner's licence:

Provided that a learner's licence limited to driving an invalid carriage may be issued to the applicant, if the licensing authority is satisfied that he is fit to drive such a carnage.

(5) No learner's licence shall be issued to any applicant unless he passes to the satisfaction of the licensing authority such test as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(6) When an application has been duly made to the appropriate licensing authority and the applicant has satisfied such authority of his physical fitness under sub-section (3) and has passed to the satisfaction of the licensing authority the test referred to in sub-section (5), the licensing authority shall, subject to the provisions of section 7, issue the applicant a learner's licence unless the applicant is disqualified under section 4 for driving a motor vehicle or is for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a licence to drive a motor vehicle:

Provided that a licensing authority may issue a learner's licence to drive a motor cycle or a light motor vehicle notwithstanding that it is not the appropriate licensing authority, if such authority is satisfied that there is good reason for the applicant's inability to apply to the appropriate licensing authority.

(7) Where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by rules made in this behalf, exempt generally, either absolutely or subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, any class of persons from the provisions of sub-section (3), or sub-section (5), or both.

(8) Any learner's licence for driving a motor cycle in force immediately before the commencement of this Act shall, after such commencement, be deemed to be effective for driving a motor cycle with or without gear.

1. Added by Act 54 of 1994, Section 6 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994.)


Section 9. Grant of driving licence

(1) Any person who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving licence may apply to the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area-

(i) in which he ordinarily resides or carries on business, or

(ii) in which the school or establishment referred to in section 12 from where he is receiving or has received instruction in driving a motor vehicle is situated.

for the issue to him of a driving licence.

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be in such form and shall be accompanied by such fee and such documents as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

1[(3) If the applicant passes such test as may be prescribed by the Central Government, he shall be issued the driving licence:

Provided that no such test shall be necessary where the applicant produces proof to show that-

(a) (i) the applicant has previously held a driving licence to drive such class of vehicle and that the period between the date of expiry of that licence and the date of the application does not exceed five years, or

(ii) the applicant holds or has previously held a driving licence to drive such class of vehicle issued under section 18, or

(iii) the applicant holds a driving licence to drive such class of vehicle issued by a competent authority of any country outside India, subject to the condition that the applicant complies with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 8,

(b) the applicant is not suffering from any disability which is likely to cause the driving by him to be a source of danger to the public; and the licensing authority may, for that purpose, require the applicant to produce a medical certificate in the same form and in the same manner as is referred to in subsection (3) of section 8:

Provided further that where the application is for a driving licence to drive a motor vehicle (not being a transport vehicle), the licensing authority may exempt the applicant from the test of competence to drive a vehicle prescribed under this sub-section, if the applicant possesses a driving certificate issued by any institution recognised in this behalf by the State Government.]

(4) Where the application is for a licence to drive a transport vehicle, no such authorisation shall be granted to any applicant unless he possesses such minimum educational qualification as may be prescribed by the Central Government and a driving certificate issued by a school or establishment referred to in section 12.

2[(5) Where the applicant does not pass the test, he may be permitted to re-appear for the test after a period of seven days:

Provided that where the applicant does not pass the test even after three appearances, he shall not be qualified to re-appear for such test before the expiry of a period of sixty days from the date of last such test.]

(6) The test of competence to drive shall be carried out in a vehicle of the type to which the application refers:

Provided that a person who passed a test in driving a motor cycle with gear shall be deemed also to have passed a test in driving a motor cycle without gear.

(7) When any application has been duly made to the appropriate licensing authority and the applicant has satisfied such authority of his competence to drive, the licensing authority shall issue the applicant a driving licence unless the applicant is for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving licence:

Provided that a licensing authority may issue a driving licence to drive a motor cycle or a light motor vehicle notwithstanding that it is not the appropriate licensing authority, if the licensing authority is satisfied that there is good and sufficient reason for the applicant's inability to apply to the appropriate licensing authority:

Provided further that the licensing authority shall not issue a new driving licence to the applicant, if he had previously held a driving licence, unless it is satisfied that there is good and sufficient reason for his inability to obtain a duplicate copy of his former licence.

(8) If the licensing authority is satisfied, after giving the applicant an opportunity of being heard, that he-

(a) is a habitual criminal or a habitual drunkard; or

(b) is a habitual addict to any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance within the meaning of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 (61 of 1985); or

(c) is a person whose licence to drive any motor vehicle has, at any time earlier, been revoked,

it may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, make an order refusing to issue a driving licence to such person and any person aggrieved by an order made by a licensing authority under this sub-section may, within thirty days of the receipt of the order, appeal to the prescribed authority.

(9) Any driving licence for driving a motor cycle in force immediately before the commencement of this Act shall, after such commencement, be deemed to be effective for driving a motor cycle with or without gear.

1. Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, Section 7, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

2 . Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, Section 7, for sub-section (5) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).


Section 10. Form and contents of licences to drive

(1) Every learner's licence and driving licence, except a driving licence issued under section 18, shall be in such form and shall contain such information as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2) A learner's licence or, as the case may be, driving licence shall also be expressed as entitling the holder to drive a motor vehicle of one or more of the following classes, namely:-

(a) motor cycle without gear;

(b) motor cycle with gear;

(c) invalid carriage;

(d) light motor vehicle;

1[(e) transport vehicle;]

(i) road-roller;

(j) motor vehicle of a specified description.

1. Substituted by Act 54 of 1994, section 8, for clauses (e) to (h) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).


Section 11. Additions to driving licence

(1) Any person holding a driving licence to drive any class or description of motor vehicles, who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving licence to drive any other class or description of motor vehicles, may apply to the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area in which he resides or carries on his business in such form and accompanied by such, documents and with such fees as may be prescribed by the Central Government for the addition of such other class or description of motor vehicles to the licence.

(2) Subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the Central Government, the provisions of section 9 shall apply to an application under this section as if the said application was for the grant of a licence under that section to drive the class or description of motor vehicles which the applicant desires to be added to his licence.

Section 12. Licensing and regulation of schools or establishments for imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles

(1) The Central Government may make rules for the purpose of licensing and regulating, by the State Government schools or establishments (by whatever name called) for imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles and matters connected therewith.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) licensing of such schools or establishments including grant, renewal and revocation of such licences;

(b) supervision of such schools or establishments;

(c) the form of application and the form of licence and the particulars to be contained therein;

(d) fee to be paid with the application for such licences;

(e) conditions subject to which such licences may be granted;

(f) appeals against the orders of refusal to grant or renew such licences and appeals against the orders revoking such licences;

(g) conditions subject to which a person may establish and maintain any such school or establishment for imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles;

(h) nature, syllabus and duration of course or courses for efficient instruction in driving any motor vehicle;

(i) apparatus and equipments (including motor vehicles fitted with dual control) required for the purpose of imparting such instruction;

(j) suitability of the premises at which such schools or establishments may be established or maintained and facilities to be provided therein;

(k) qualifications, both educational and professional (including experience), which a person imparting instruction in driving a motor vehicle shall possess;

(l) inspection of such schools and establishments (including the services rendered by them and the apparatus, equipments and motor vehicles maintained by them for imparting such instruction);

(m) maintenance of records by such schools or establishments;

(n) financial stability of such schools or establishments;

(o) the driving certificates, if any, to be issued by such schools or establishments and the form in which such driving certificates shall be issued and the requirements to be complied with for the purposes of issuing such certificates;

(p) such other matters as may he necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(3) Where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by rules made in this behalf, exempt generally, either absolutely or subject to such conditions as may be specified in the rules, any class of schools or establishments imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles or matters connected therewith from the provisions of this section.

(4) A school or establishment imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles or matters connected therewith immediately before the commencement of this Act whether under a licence or not, may continue to impart such instruction without a licence issued under this Act for a period of one month from such commencement, and if it has made an application for such licence under this Act within the said period of one month and such application is in the prescribed form, contains the prescribed particulars and is accompanied by the prescribed fee, till the disposal of such application by the licensing authority.