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CALIFORNIA CORPORATIONS CODE

Last update: 2011-11-10


  • General Provisions. 1-21
  • TITLE 1. Corporations
    • DIVISION 1. General Corporation Law
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions and Definitions. 100-195
      • CHAPTER 2. Organization and Bylaws. 200-213
      • CHAPTER 3. Directors and Management. 300-318
      • CHAPTER 4. Shares and Share Certificates. 400-423
      • CHAPTER 5. Dividends and Reacquisitions of Shares. 500-511
      • CHAPTER 6. Shareholders' Meetings and Consents. 600-605
      • CHAPTER 7. Voting of Shares. 700-711
      • CHAPTER 8. Shareholder Derivative Actions. 800
      • CHAPTER 9. Amendment of Articles. 900-911
      • CHAPTER 10. Sales of Assets. 1000-1002
      • CHAPTER 11. Merger. 1100-1113
      • CHAPTER 11.5. Conversions. 1150-1160
      • CHAPTER 12. Reorganizations. 1200-1203
      • CHAPTER 13. Dissenters' Rights. 1300-1313
      • CHAPTER 14. Bankruptcy Reorganizations and Arrangements. 1400-1403
      • CHAPTER 15. Records and Reports. 1500-1512
      • CHAPTER 16. Rights of Inspection. 1600-1605
      • CHAPTER 17. Service of Process. 1700-1702
      • CHAPTER 18. Involuntary Dissolution. 1800-1809
      • CHAPTER 19. Voluntary Dissolution. 1900-1907
      • CHAPTER 20. General Provisions Relating to Dissolution. 2000-2011
      • CHAPTER 21. Foreign Corporations. 2100-2117.1
      • CHAPTER 22. Crimes and Penalties. 2200-2260
      • CHAPTER 23. Transition Provisions. 2300-2319
    • DIVISION 2. Nonprofit Corporation Law. 5000-5001
      • PART 2. Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporations
        • CHAPTER 1. Organization and Bylaws
          • Article 1. Title and Purposes. 5110-5111
          • Article 2. Formation. 5120-5122
          • Article 3. Articles of Incorporation. 5130-5134
          • Article 4. Powers. 5140-5142
          • Article 5. Bylaws. 5150-5153
          • Article 6. Location and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws. 5160
        • CHAPTER 2. Directors and Management
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 5210-5215
          • Article 2. Selection, Removal and Resignation of Directors. 5220-5227
          • Article 3. Standards of Conduct. 5230-5239
          • Article 4. Investments. 5240-5241
          • Article 5. Examination by Attorney General. 5250
          • Article 6. Compliance With Internal Revenue Code. 5260
        • CHAPTER 3. Members
          • Article 1. Issuance of Memberships. 5310-5313
          • Article 2. Transfer of Memberships. 5320
          • Article 3. Types of Memberships. 5330-5332
          • Article 4. Termination of Memberships. 5340-5342
          • Article 5. Rights and Obligations of Members and Creditors. 5350-5354
        • CHAPTER 4. Distributions
          • Article 1. Limitations. 5410
          • Article 2. Liability of Members. 5420
        • CHAPTER 5. Meetings and Voting
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 5510-5517
          • Article 2. Additional Provisions Relating to Election of Directors. 5520-5527
        • CHAPTER 6. Voting of Memberships. 5610-5617
        • CHAPTER 7. Members' Derivative Actions. 5710
        • CHAPTER 8. Amendment of Articles. 5810-5820
        • CHAPTER 9. Sales of Assets
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 5910-5913
          • Article 2. Health Facilities. 5914-5930
        • CHAPTER 10. Mergers
          • Article 1. Merger. 6010-6019.1
          • Article 2. Effect of Merger. 6020-6022
        • CHAPTER 11. Bankruptcy Reorganizations and Arrangements. 6110
        • CHAPTER 12. Required Filings by Corporation or Its Agent. 6210-6216
        • CHAPTER 13. Records, Reports, and Rights of Inspection
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 6310-6313
          • Article 2. Required Records, Reports to Directors and Members 6320-6325
          • Article 3. Rights of Inspection. 6330-6338
        • CHAPTER 14. Service of Process. 6410
        • CHAPTER 15. Involuntary Dissolution. 6510-6519
        • CHAPTER 16. Voluntary Dissolution. 6610-6618
        • CHAPTER 17. General Provisions Relating to Dissolution. 6710-6721
        • CHAPTER 18. Crimes and Penalties. 6810-6815
        • CHAPTER 19. Foreign Corporations. 6910
      • PART 3. Nonprofit Mutual Benefit Corporations
        • CHAPTER 1. Organization and Bylaws
          • Article 1. Title and Purposes. 7110-7111
          • Article 2. Formation. 7120-7122.3
          • Article 3. Articles of Incorporation. 7130-7135
          • Article 4. Powers. 7140-7142
          • Article 5. Bylaws. 7150-7153
          • Article 6. Location and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws. 7160
        • CHAPTER 2. Directors and Management
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 7210-7215
          • Article 2. Selection, Removal and Resignation of Directors. 7220-7225
          • Article 3. Standards of Conduct. 7230-7238
          • Article 4. Examination by Attorney General. 7240
        • CHAPTER 3. Members
          • Article 1. Issuance of Memberships. 7310-7315
          • Article 2. Transfer of Memberships. 7320
          • Article 3. Types of Memberships. 7330-7333
          • Article 4. Termination of Memberships. 7340-7341
          • Article 5. Rights and Obligations of Members and Creditors. 7350-7354
        • CHAPTER 4. Distributions
          • Article 1. Limitations. 7410-7414
          • Article 2. Liability of Members. 7420
        • CHAPTER 5. Meetings and Voting
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 7510-7517
          • Article 2. Additional Provisions Relating to Election of Directors. 7520-7527
        • CHAPTER 6. Voting of Memberships. 7610-7616
        • CHAPTER 7. Members' Derivative Actions. 7710
        • CHAPTER 8. Amendment of Articles. 7810-7820
        • CHAPTER 9. Sales of Assets. 7910-7913
        • CHAPTER 10. Mergers
          • Article 1. Merger. 8010-8019.1
          • Article 2. Effect of Merger. 8020-8022
        • CHAPTER 11. Bankruptcy Reorganizations and Arrangements. 8110
        • CHAPTER 12. Required Filings by Corporation or Its Agent. 8210-8217
        • CHAPTER 13. Records, Reports, and Rights of Inspection
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 8310-8313
          • Article 2. Required Records, Reports to Directors and Members 8320-8325
          • Article 3. Rights of Inspection. 8330-8338
        • CHAPTER 14. Service of Process. 8410
        • CHAPTER 15. Involuntary Dissolution. 8510-8519
        • CHAPTER 16. Voluntary Dissolution. 8610-8618
        • CHAPTER 17. General Provisions Relating to Dissolution. 8710-8724
        • CHAPTER 18. Crimes and Penalties. 8810-8817
        • CHAPTER 19. Foreign Corporations. 8910
      • PART 4. Nonprofit Religious Corporations
        • CHAPTER 1. Organization and Bylaws
          • Article 1. Title and Purposes. 9110-9111
          • Article 2. Formation. 9120-9122
          • Article 3. Articles of Incorporation. 9130-9134
          • Article 4. Powers. 9140-9143
          • Article 5. Bylaws. 9150-9153
          • Article 6. Location and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws. 9160
        • CHAPTER 2. Directors and Management
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 9210-9215
          • Article 2. Selection, Removal and Resignation of Directors. 9220-9226
          • Article 3. Examination by Attorney General. 9230
          • Article 4. Standards of Conduct. 9240-9247
          • Article 5. Investments. 9250-9251
          • Article 6. Compliance With Internal Revenue Code. 9260
        • CHAPTER 3. Members
          • Article 1. Issuance of Memberships. 9310-9313
          • Article 2. Transfer of Memberships. 9320
          • Article 3. Types of Memberships. 9330-9332
          • Article 4. Termination of Memberships. 9340
          • Article 5. Rights and Obligations of Members and Creditors. 9350-9353
        • CHAPTER 4. Meetings and Voting. 9410-9421
        • CHAPTER 5. Records, Reports and Rights of Inspection. 9510-9514
        • CHAPTER 6. Miscellaneous Provisions
          • Article 1. Distributions. 9610
          • Article 2. Amendment of Articles. 9620-9621
          • Article 3. Sale of Assets. 9630-9633
          • Article 4. Mergers. 9640
          • Article 5. Bankruptcy Reorganizations and Arrangements. 9650
          • Article 6. Filings. 9660
          • Article 7. Service of Process. 9670
          • Article 8. Dissolution. 9680
          • Article 9. Crimes and Penalties. 9690
      • PART 5. Transition Provisions. 9910-9928
      • PART 6. Corporations Sole. 10000-10015
      • PART 7. Corporations for Charitable or Eleemosynary Purposes. 10200
      • PART 8. Trust Funds. 10250-10251
      • PART 9. Societies for Prevention of Cruelty to Children and Animals. 10400-10406
      • PART 10. Port and Terminal Protection and Development Corporations. 10700-10703
      • PART 11. Nonprofit Medical, Hospital, or Legal Services Corporations
        • Article 1. Nonprofit Corporations for Medical Services. 10810-10812
        • Article 2. Nonprofit Health Care Service Plans. 10820-10821
        • Article 3. Nonprofit Corporation to Administer System of Defraying Cost of Professional Services of Attorneys. 10830-10831
        • Article 4. Hospital Service Plans. 10840-10841
    • DIVISION 3. Corporations for Specific Purposes
      • PART 1. Chambers of Commerce, Boards of Trade, Mechanics' Institutes, Etc.. 12000
      • PART 2. Consumer Cooperative Corporations
        • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions, Organization and Bylaws
          • Article 1. Title, Purposes and Application of Part. 12200-12203
          • Article 2. General Provisions and Definitions. 12210-12256
          • Article 3. Formation. 12300-12302.1
          • Article 4. Articles of Incorporation. 12310-12316
          • Article 5. Powers. 12320-12321
          • Article 6. Bylaws. 12330-12333
          • Article 7. Location and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws. 12340
        • CHAPTER 2. Directors and Management
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 12350-12355
          • Article 2. Selection, Removal and Resignation of Directors 12360-12364
          • Article 3. Standards of Conduct. 12370-12377
        • CHAPTER 3. Members
          • Article 1. Issuance of Memberships. 12400-12405
          • Article 2. Transfer of Memberships. 12410
          • Article 3. Types of Memberships. 12420-12422
          • Article 4. Termination of Memberships. 12430-12431
          • Article 5. Rights and Obligations of Members and Creditors 12440-12446
        • CHAPTER 4. Distributions
          • Article 1. Limitations. 12450-12454
          • Article 2. Liability of Members. 12455
        • CHAPTER 5. Meetings and Voting
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 12460-12466
          • Article 2. Additional Provisions Relating to Election of Directors. 12470-12477
        • CHAPTER 6. Voting of Memberships. 12480-12485
        • CHAPTER 7. Members' Derivative Actions. 12490
        • CHAPTER 8. Amendment of Articles. 12500-12510
        • CHAPTER 9. Sales of Assets. 12520-12522
        • CHAPTER 10. Mergers
          • Article 1. Merger. 12530-12540.1
          • Article 2. Effect of Merger. 12550-12552
        • CHAPTER 11. Bankruptcy Reorganizations and Arrangements. 12560
        • CHAPTER 12. Required Filings by Corporation or Its Agent. 12570-12576
        • CHAPTER 13. Records, Reports and Rights of Inspection
          • Article 1. General Provisions. 12580-12583
          • Article 2. Required Records, Reports to Directors and Members. 12590-12594
          • Article 3. Rights of Inspection. 12600-12608
        • CHAPTER 14. Service of Process. 12610
        • CHAPTER 15. Involuntary Dissolution. 12620-12629
        • CHAPTER 16. Voluntary Dissolution. 12630-12637
        • CHAPTER 17. General Provisions Relating to Dissolution. 12650-12663
        • CHAPTER 18. Crimes and Penalties. 12670-12679
        • CHAPTER 19. Foreign Corporations. 12680
        • CHAPTER 20. Transition Provisions. 12690-12704
      • PART 3. Fish Marketing
        • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions and Definitions. 13200-13208
        • CHAPTER 2. Formation, Articles, and By-laws
          • Article 1. Formation. 13220
          • Article 2. Articles of Incorporation. 13225-13230
          • Article 3. By-laws. 13240-13251
        • CHAPTER 3. Officers
          • Article 1. Generally. 13275-13279
          • Article 2. Removal of Officers. 13290-13293
        • CHAPTER 4. Members. 13300-13304
        • CHAPTER 5. Stock. 13310-13316
        • CHAPTER 6. Powers. 13325-13335
        • CHAPTER 7. Marketing Contracts. 13350-13356
      • PART 4. Professional Corporations. 13400-13410
      • PART 5. Small Businesses
        • CHAPTER 1. California Small Business Financial Development Corporations
          • Article 1. Introduction. 14000-14003
          • Article 2. Definitions. 14010
          • Article 3. Small Business Development Board. 14020-14024
          • Article 4. Executive Director. 14025-14028
          • Article 5. Funds. 14030-14044
          • Article 6. New Corporations. 14045-14052
          • Article 7. Corporation Board and Loan Committee. 14055-14060.6
          • Article 8. Corporations, Miscellaneous. 14061-14069.6
          • Article 9. Loans and Loan Guarantees. 14070-14076
          • Article 11. Conflict of Interest. 14085-14087
          • Article 12. Other Programs. 14090-14091
      • PART 6. Employee-owned Businesses. 14200
      • PART 7. General Provisions Applicable to Certain Corporations
        • CHAPTER 1. Water Companies. 14300-14303
        • CHAPTER 2. Mutual Water Companies Formed in Connection With Subdivided Lands. 14310-14318
      • PART 8. Bridge, Ferry, Wharf, Chute, and Pier Corporations. 14350-14353
      • PART 9. Cable Television Corporations. 14400
      • PART 10. Water and Canal Corporations. 14450-14452
      • PART 11. Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 14500-14505
      • PART 12. Nonprofit Cooperative Agricultural Marketing Associations. 14550-14551
  • TITLE 2. Partnerships
    • CHAPTER 4. Process Agents for Certain Foreign Corporations. 15800
    • CHAPTER 5. Uniform Partnership Act of 1994
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 16100-16114
      • Article 2. Nature of Partnership. 16201-16204
      • Article 3. Relations of Partners to Persons Dealing With Partnership. 16301-16310
      • Article 4. Relations of Partners to Each other and to Partnership. 16401-16406
      • Article 5. Transferees and Creditors of Partner. 16501-16504
      • Article 6. Partner's Dissociation. 16601-16603
      • Article 7. Partner's Dissociation When Business Not Wound Up 16701-16705
      • Article 8. Winding Up Partnership Business. 16801-16807
      • Article 9. Conversions and Mergers. 16901-16917
      • Article 10. Limited Liability Partnerships. 16951-16962
    • CHAPTER 5.5. Uniform Limited Partnership Act of 2008
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 15900-15901.17
      • Article 2. Formation; Certificate of Limited Partnership and other Filings. 15902.01-15902.09
      • Article 3. Limited Partners. 15903.01-15903.07
      • Article 4. General Partners. 15904.01-15904.09
      • Article 5. Contributions and Distributions. 15905.01-15905.09
      • Article 6. Dissociation. 15906.01-15906.07
      • Article 7. Transferable Interests and Rights of Transferees and Creditors. 15907.01-15907.04
      • Article 8. Dissolution. 15908.01-15908.09
      • Article 9. Foreign Limited Partnership. 15909.01-15909.08
      • Article 10. Actions by Partners. 15910.01-15910.06
      • Article 11. Conversion and Merger. 15911.01-15911.19
      • Article 11.5. Dissenting Limited Partners' Rights. 15911.20-15911.33
      • Article 12. Miscellaneous Provisions. 15912.01-15912.07
  • TITLE 2.5. Limited Liability Companies
    • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 17000-17005
    • CHAPTER 2. Formation. 17050-17062
    • CHAPTER 3. Members. 17100-17107
    • CHAPTER 4. Management. 17150-17158
    • CHAPTER 5. Finance. 17200-17202
    • CHAPTER 6. Distributions and Withdrawals. 17250-17255
    • CHAPTER 7. Interest in Limited Liability Company: Assignment of Interests. 17300-17304
    • CHAPTER 8. Dissolution. 17350-17357
    • CHAPTER 9. Professional Limited Liability Companies: Reserved. 17375
    • CHAPTER 10. Foreign Limited Liability Companies. 17450-17457
    • CHAPTER 11. Class Actions and Derivative Actions. 17500-17501
    • CHAPTER 11.5. Conversion. 17540.1-17540.9
    • CHAPTER 12. Merger. 17550-17556
    • CHAPTER 13. Dissenting Members' Rights. 17600-17613
    • CHAPTER 14. Miscellaneous Provisions. 17650-17656
  • TITLE 3. Unincorporated Associations
    • PART 1. General Provisions
      • CHAPTER 1. Definitions. 18000-18035
      • CHAPTER 2. Application of Title. 18055-18070
      • CHAPTER 3. Property. 18100-18135
      • CHAPTER 4. Designation of Agent for Service of Process. 18200-18220
      • CHAPTER 5. Liability and Enforcement of Judgments. 18250-18270
      • CHAPTER 6. Governance
        • Article 1. [reserved]. 18300
        • Article 2. Termination or Suspension of Membership. 18310-18320
        • Article 3. Member Voting. 18330
        • Article 4. Amendment of Governing Documents. 18340
        • Article 5. Merger. 18350-18400
        • Article 6. Dissolution. 18410-18420
    • PART 2. Nonprofit Associations
      • CHAPTER 1. Liability. 18605-18640
      • CHAPTER 3. Medical Associations. 21200
      • CHAPTER 4. Insignia. 21300-21310
      • CHAPTER 5. Death Benefit Payments by Fraternal Societies. 21400-21401
    • PART 3. Joint Stock Associations. 22000-22003
    • PART 4. Real Estate Investment Trusts. 23000-23006
    • PART 5. Liability of Director or Officer of Nonprofit Medical Association. 24001.5
  • TITLE 4. Securities
    • DIVISION 1. Corporate Securities Law of 1968
      • PART 1. Definitions. 25000-25023
      • PART 2. Qualification of and Filing Requirements for the Sale of Securities
        • CHAPTER 1. Exemptions and Certain Securities and Transactions Not Subject to Qualification. 25100-25105
        • CHAPTER 2. Issuer Transactions. 25110-25118
        • CHAPTER 3. Recapitalizations and Reorganizations. 25120-25122
        • CHAPTER 4. Nonissuer Transactions. 25130-25134
        • CHAPTER 5. Authority of the Commissioner. 25140-25151
        • CHAPTER 6. General Provisions. 25160-25166
      • PART 3. Regulation and Notice Filing Requirements of Agents, Broker-dealers, Investment Adviser Representatives, and Investment Advisers
        • CHAPTER 1. Exemptions. 25200-25209
        • CHAPTER 2. Licensing of Agents and Broker-dealers. 25210-25221
        • CHAPTER 3. Licensing and Notice Filing Requirements of Investment Adviser Representatives and Investment Advisers. 25230-25238
        • CHAPTER 4. General Provisions. 25240-25256
      • PART 4. Advertising Securities. 25300-25302
      • PART 5. Fraudulent and Prohibited Practices. 25400-25404
      • PART 6. Enforcement
        • CHAPTER 1. Civil Liability. 25500-25510
        • CHAPTER 2. Powers of the Commissioner. 25530-25536
        • CHAPTER 3. Crimes. 25540-25542
        • CHAPTER 4. Service of Process. 25550
      • PART 7. Administration. 25600-25620
      • PART 8. General Provisions. 25700-25707
    • DIVISION 2. Security Owners Protection
      • CHAPTER 1. Definitions and General Provisions. 27000-27003
      • CHAPTER 2. Unlawful and Fraudulent Conduct. 27100-27101
      • CHAPTER 3. Civil Liability and Crimes. 27200-27202
    • DIVISION 3. Capital Access Companies
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions
        • Article 1. Short Title and Construction. 28000-28004
        • Article 2. Definitions. 28030-28049
      • CHAPTER 2. Administration. 28100-28111
      • CHAPTER 3. Licensing. 28150-28155
      • CHAPTER 4. Organizational Matters
        • Article 1. Organization and Name. 28200-28201
        • Article 2. Directors. 28210-28212
      • CHAPTER 5. Offices
        • Article 1. Establishing, Relocating, and Closing Offices. 28320
      • CHAPTER 6. Transaction of Business. 28400-28405
      • CHAPTER 7. Records, Reports, and Examinations. 28500-28505
      • CHAPTER 8. Acquisition of Control. 28550-28552
      • CHAPTER 9. Merger and Purchase or Sale of Business. 28600-28604
      • CHAPTER 10. Voluntary Surrender of License. 28650-28651
      • CHAPTER 11. Enforcement. 28700-28716
      • CHAPTER 12. Crimes and Criminal Penalties
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 28800-28802
        • Article 2. Conflicts of Interest. 28820-28821
        • Article 3. Criminal Penalties. 28880-28881
      • CHAPTER 13. Civil Penalties. 28900-28901
      • CHAPTER 14. Miscellaneous Provisions. 28950-28958
    • DIVISION 4. Bucket Shop Law
      • CHAPTER 1. Definitions. 29000-29008
      • CHAPTER 2. Prohibited Activities. 29100-29105
      • CHAPTER 3. Required Records and Statements. 29200-29201
    • DIVISION 4.5. Commodities
      • CHAPTER 1. Definitions. 29500-29516
      • CHAPTER 2. Unlawful Commodity Transactions. 29520
      • CHAPTER 3. Exemptions. 29530-29532
      • CHAPTER 4. Unlawful Activities and Fraudulent Conduct. 29535-29538
      • CHAPTER 5. Powers of the Commissioner. 29540-29546
      • CHAPTER 6. Crimes and Civil Liability. 29550-29555
      • CHAPTER 7. Miscellaneous Provisions. 29560-29567
    • DIVISION 5. Franchise Investment Law
      • PART 1. Definitions. 31000-31019
      • PART 2. Regulation of the Sale of Franchises
        • CHAPTER 1. Exemptions. 31100-31109.1
        • CHAPTER 2. Disclosure. 31110-31125
        • CHAPTER 3. General Provisions. 31150-31157
      • PART 3. Fraudulent and Prohibited Practices
        • CHAPTER 1. Fraudulent Practices. 31200-31204
        • CHAPTER 2. Prohibited Practices. 31210-31211
        • CHAPTER 3. Unfair Practices. 31220
      • PART 4. Enforcement
        • CHAPTER 1. Civil Liability. 31300-31306
        • CHAPTER 2. Powers of the Commissioner. 31400-31408
        • CHAPTER 3. Crimes. 31410-31412
        • CHAPTER 4. Service of Process. 31420
      • PART 5. Administration. 31500-31506
      • PART 6. General Provisions. 31510-31516
  • TITLE 5. Subversive Organization Registration Law
    • CHAPTER 1. Definitions and General Provisions. 35000-35007
    • CHAPTER 2. Filing Information and Documents. 35100-35105
    • CHAPTER 3. Literature. 35200
    • CHAPTER 4. Offenses. 35300-35302
  • TITLE 10. Repeals. 100000-100008

General Provisions.

Section 1

This act shall be known as the Corporations Code.

Section 2

The provisions of this code, insofar as they are substantially the same as existing statutory provisions relating to the same subject matter, shall be construed as restatements and continuations, and not as new enactments.

Section 3

All persons who, at the time this code goes into effect, hold office under any of the acts repealed by this code, which offices are continued by this code, continue to hold them according to their former tenure.

Section 4

No action or proceeding commenced before this code takes effect, and no right accrued, is affected by the provisions of this code, but all procedure thereafter taken therein shall conform to the provisions of this code so far as possible.

Section 5

Unless the provision or the context otherwise requires, these general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions govern the construction of this code.

Section 6

Title, division, part, chapter, article, and section headings contained herein do not in any manner affect the scope, meaning, or intent of the provisions of this code.

Section 7

Whenever, by the provisions of this code, a power is granted to, or a duty imposed upon, a public officer, the power may be exercised or the duty performed by a deputy of the officer or by a person authorized, pursuant to law, by the officer, unless this code expressly provides otherwise.

Section 8

Writing includes any form of recorded message capable of comprehension by ordinary visual means; and when used to describe communications between a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company and its shareholders, members, partners, directors, or managers, writing shall include electronic transmissions by and to a corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic transmissions by and to a partnership (subdivisions (4) and (5) of Section 16101), and electronic transmissions by and to a limited liability company (paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (o) of Section 17001). Whenever any notice, report, statement, or record is required or authorized by this code, it shall be made in writing in the English language.

Wherever any notice or other communication is required by this code to be mailed by registered mail by or to any person or corporation, the mailing of such notice or other communication by certified mail shall be deemed to be a sufficient compliance with the requirements of law.

Section 9

Whenever reference is made to any portion of this code or of any other law of this State, the reference applies to all amendments and additions now or hereafter made.

Section 10

"Section" means a section of this code unless some other statute is specifically mentioned. "Subdivision" means a subdivision of the section in which the term appears unless some other section is expressly mentioned.

Section 11

The present tense includes the past and future tenses, and the future tense includes the present.

Section 12

The masculine gender includes the feminine and neuter.

Section 13

The singular number includes the plural, and the plural number includes the singular.

Section 14

"County" includes "city and county."