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CALIFORNIA ELECTIONS CODE

Last update: 2011-11-11


  • DIVISION 0.5. Preliminary Provisions
    • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 1-17
    • CHAPTER 2. Petitions and Petition Signers. 100-106
    • CHAPTER 3. Nominations. 200-201
    • CHAPTER 4. Definitions. 300-362
  • DIVISION 1. Established Election Dates
    • CHAPTER 1. Election Dates. 1000-1003
    • CHAPTER 2. Election Day. 1100
    • CHAPTER 3. Statewide Elections. 1200-1202
    • CHAPTER 4. Local Elections. 1300-1304
    • CHAPTER 5. Special Elections. 1400-1415
    • CHAPTER 6. Mail Ballot Elections. 1500
  • DIVISION 2. Voters
    • CHAPTER 1. Voter Qualifications
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 2000
      • Article 2. Determination of Residence and Domicile. 2020-2035
      • Article 3. Visually Impaired Voters. 2050-2053
    • CHAPTER 2. Registration
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 2100-2124
      • Article 2. Reimbursable Voter Outreach Costs. 2130-2131
      • Article 3. Registration Procedures. 2135-2143
      • Article 3.5. Student Voter Registration. 2145-2148
      • Article 4. Forms. 2150-2168
      • Article 5. Voter Registration Index. 2180-2194
    • CHAPTER 2.5. Online Voter Registration. 2196
    • CHAPTER 3. Cancellation and Voter File Maintenance
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 2200-2213
      • Article 2. Residency Confirmation Procedures. 2220-2226
      • Article 3. Reimbursable File Maintenance. 2240-2241
    • CHAPTER 4. Motor Voter. 2250
    • CHAPTER 5. Voter Bill of Rights. 2300
  • DIVISION 3. Vote by Mail Voting, New Resident, and New Citizen Voting
    • CHAPTER 1. Vote by Mail Application and Voting Procedures. 3000-3024
    • CHAPTER 2. Special Absentee Application and Voting Procedures. 3100-3112
    • CHAPTER 3. Permanent Vote by Mail Application and Procedures. 3200-3206
    • CHAPTER 4. Federal Absentee Application and Voting Procedures. 3300-3311
    • CHAPTER 5. New Residents Application and Voting Procedures. 3400-3408
    • CHAPTER 6. New Citizens Application and Voting Procedures. 3500-3503
  • DIVISION 4. Mail Ballot Elections
    • CHAPTER 1. Conditions for Mail Ballot Election. 4000-4004
    • CHAPTER 2. Conduct of Mail Ballot Elections. 4100-4108
  • DIVISION 5. Political Party Qualifications
    • CHAPTER 1. New Party Qualifications. 5000-5006
    • CHAPTER 2. Parties Qualified to Participate in the Primary Election. 5100-5102
    • CHAPTER 3. Disqualification of Political Parties. 5200
  • DIVISION 6. Presidential Elections
    • PART 1. Partisan Presidential Primaries
      • CHAPTER 0.5. General Provisions. 6000
      • CHAPTER 1. Democratic Presidential Primary
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 6000a-6003
        • Article 2. Number and Certification of Delegates and Alternates. 6020-6024
        • Article 3. Selection of Candidates by the Secretary of State 6040-6043
        • Article 4. Qualification of Candidates and Uncommitted Delegations. 6060-6061
        • Article 5. Steering Committees. 6080-6082
        • Article 6. Nomination Papers. 6101-6108
        • Article 7. Circulators. 6122-6123
        • Article 8. Arrangement and Examination of Nomination Papers. 6140-6146
        • Article 9. Notification of Qualification From Secretary of State 6160
        • Article 10. Certified List of Candidates and Uncommitted Delegations, Notice of Election. 6180
        • Article 12. Canvass of Returns and Certificate of Selection. 6220-6222
        • Article 13. Write-in Candidates. 6240-6241
      • CHAPTER 2. Republican Presidential Primary
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 6300
        • Article 2. Number and Certification of Delegates. 6320-6323
        • Article 3. Selection of Candidates by the Secretary of State 6340-6343
        • Article 4. Nomination Papers. 6360-6365
        • Article 5. Circulators. 6382-6383
        • Article 6. Arrangement and Examination of Nomination Papers. 6400-6406
        • Article 7. Canvass of Returns 6420-6422
        • Article 8. Write-in Candidates. 6440-6443
        • Article 9. Selection of Delegates. 6460-6461
        • Article 10. Republican Presidential Primary Ballot. 6480
      • CHAPTER 3. American Independent Party Presidential Primary
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 6500-6502
        • Article 2. Qualification of Candidates for Presidential Preference Portion of Primary Ballot. 6520-6524
        • Article 3. Determination of Number of Delegates to National Convention. 6540-6543
        • Article 4. Qualification of Groups of Candidates for Delegate Selection Portion of Primary Ballot. 6560-6568
        • Article 5. Preparation, Circulation, and Filing of Nomination Papers. 6580-6599
        • Article 6. American Independent Presidential Primary Ballot. 6620-6621
        • Article 7. Postelection Proceedings. 6640-6647
      • CHAPTER 4. Peace and Freedom Party Presidential Primary
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 6700-6702
        • Article 2. Qualification of Candidates for Presidential Preference Portion of Primary Ballot. 6720-6726
        • Article 3. Determination of Number to National Convention. 6740-6745
        • Article 4. Qualification of Group of Candidates for National Convention Delegate Portion of Primary Ballot. 6760-6769
        • Article 5. Preparation, Circulation and Filing of Nominating Papers. 6780-6798
        • Article 6. Peace and Freedom Party Presidential Primary Ballot 6820-6822
        • Article 7. Certification of National Convention Delegates Elected and Postelection Proceedings. 6840-6849
    • PART 2. Elections for Presidential Electors
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 6900-6909
      • CHAPTER 2. Duties of the Secretary of State. 6950-6954
  • DIVISION 7. Political Party Organization and Central Committee Elections
    • PART 1. General Provisions. 7000
    • PART 2. Democratic Party
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 7050
      • CHAPTER 2. Presidential Electors. 7100-7110
      • CHAPTER 3. State Central Committee. 7150-7152
      • CHAPTER 4. County Central Committee
        • Article 1. Members. 7200-7216
        • Article 2. Elections. 7225-7229
        • Article 3. Meetings. 7235-7236
        • Article 4. General Business. 7240-7244
    • PART 3. Republican Party
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 7250
      • CHAPTER 2. Presidential Electors. 7300
      • CHAPTER 3. State Central Committee. 7350-7354
      • CHAPTER 4. County Central Committee
        • Article 1. Members. 7400-7414
        • Article 2. Election. 7420-7424
        • Article 3. Meetings. 7430-7431
        • Article 4. General Business. 7440-7444
        • Article 5. District Committees. 7460-7470
    • PART 4. American Independent Party
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 7500
      • CHAPTER 2. State Convention
        • Article 1. Delegates. 7550-7561
        • Article 2. Meetings. 7570
        • Article 3. General Business. 7575-7580
      • CHAPTER 3. State Central Committee
        • Article 1. Members. 7600-7614
        • Article 2. Meetings. 7620
        • Article 3. Proxies. 7628
        • Article 4. General Business. 7635-7645
      • CHAPTER 4. County Central Committee
        • Article 1. Members. 7650-7661
        • Article 2. Election. 7670-7674
        • Article 3. Meetings. 7680-7683
        • Article 4. General Business. 7690-7695
    • PART 5. Peace and Freedom Party
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 7700
      • CHAPTER 2. Members of Central Committees
        • Article 1. Members. 7750-7755
        • Article 2. Election. 7770-7783
      • CHAPTER 3. State Central Committee
        • Article 1. Members. 7800-7805
        • Article 2. Meetings. 7820
        • Article 3. General Business. 7830-7843
      • CHAPTER 4. County Central Committee
        • Article 1. Members. 7850-7857
        • Article 2. Meetings. 7870-7871
        • Article 3. General. 7880-7884
  • DIVISION 8. Nominations
    • PART 1. Primary Election Nominations
      • CHAPTER 1. Direct Primary
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 8000-8005
        • Article 2. Nomination Documents. 8020-8028
        • Article 3. Form of Nomination Documents. 8040-8041
        • Article 4. Circulation and Signatures--nomination Documents. 8060-8070
        • Article 5. Verification of Nomination Signatures. 8080-8084
        • Article 6. Nomination Papers 8100-8107
        • Article 7. Certified List of Candidates. 8120-8125
        • Article 8. Nominated Candidates. 8140-8150
      • CHAPTER 2. Judicial Officers
        • Article 1. Distinguishing Number on Ballot. 8200-8204
        • Article 2. Adoption of Subdivision (d) of Section 16 of Article Vi of the California Constitution. 8220-8228
    • PART 2. Independent Nominations
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 8300-8304
      • CHAPTER 3. Nomination Papers. 8400-8409
      • CHAPTER 4. Circulators. 8451-8454
      • CHAPTER 5. Arrangement and Examination of Nomination Papers. 8500-8504
      • CHAPTER 6. Affidavit of Candidate. 8550
    • PART 3. Write-in Candidates
      • CHAPTER 1. General. 8600-8606
      • CHAPTER 2. Presidential Electors. 8650-8653
      • CHAPTER 3. Term Limits. 8700
    • PART 4. Withdrawal of Candidates: Vacancies. 8800-8811
  • DIVISION 9. Measures Submitted to the Voters
    • CHAPTER 1. State Elections
      • Article 1. Initiative and Referendum Petitions. 9000-9018
      • Article 2. Petition Signatures. 9020-9022
      • Article 3. Filing Petitions. 9030-9035
      • Article 4. Measures Proposed by the Legislature. 9040-9044
      • Article 5. Ballot Titles. 9050-9054
      • Article 6. Arguments Concerning Measures Submitted to Voters. 9060-9069
      • Article 7. Ballot Pamphlet. 9080-9096
    • CHAPTER 2. County Elections
      • Article 1. Initiative. 9100-9126
      • Article 2. Referendum. 9140-9147
      • Article 3. Arguments Concerning County Measures. 9160-9168
      • Article 4. Mailings. 9180
      • Article 5. Public Examinations. 9190
    • CHAPTER 3. Municipal Elections
      • Article 1. Initiative. 9200-9226
      • Article 2. Referendum. 9235-9247
      • Article 3. City or City and County Charters. 9255-9269
      • Article 4. Arguments Concerning City Measures. 9280-9287
      • Article 5. Mailings. 9290
      • Article 6. Public Examination. 9295
    • CHAPTER 4. District Elections
      • Article 1. Initiative. 9300-9323
      • Article 2. Referendum. 9340-9342
      • Article 3. Mailings. 9360
      • Article 4. Public Examination. 9380
    • CHAPTER 5. Bond Issues. 9400-9405
    • CHAPTER 6. School District Elections. 9500-9509
    • CHAPTER 7. General Provisions. 9600-9610
  • DIVISION 10. Local, Special, Vacancy, and Consolidated Elections
    • PART 1. General Provisions
      • CHAPTER 1. Voters and Procedure. 10000-10004
    • PART 2. Municipal Elections
      • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 10100-10104
      • CHAPTER 2. Regulations Governing Elections in Cities
        • Article 1. General Provisions. 10200-10202
        • Article 1.2. The Congressional Term Limits Act. 10204.1-10204.11
        • Article 2. Nomination of Candidates. 10220-10230
        • Article 3. Conduct of Elections. 10240-10243
        • Article 4. Canvass of Ballots and Returns. 10260-10266
      • CHAPTER 3. Emergency Elections in Cities. 10300-10312
    • PART 3. Consolidation of Elections. 10400-10418
    • PART 4. Uniform District Election Law. 10500-10556
    • PART 5. School District and Community College District Governing Board Elections. 10600-10604
    • PART 6. Elections to Fill Vacancies
      • CHAPTER 1. Nomination of Candidates for Legislative and Congressional Offices at Special Elections. 10700-10707
      • CHAPTER 2. Vacancy in Senate. 10720
      • CHAPTER 3. Vacancies in Congressional Offices Caused by Catastrophe. 10730-10735
  • DIVISION 11. Recall Elections
    • CHAPTER 1. General Procedures: General Provisions and Initial Steps in the Recall
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 11000-11007
      • Article 2. The Notice of Intention, Statement, and Answer. 11020-11024
      • Article 3. Recall Petition. 11040-11047
    • CHAPTER 2. Recall of State Officers: Intermediate Steps in the Recall. 11100-11110
    • CHAPTER 3. Recall of Local Officers: Intermediate Steps in the Recall
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 11200-11201
      • Article 2. Recall Petitions. 11220-11227
      • Article 3. The Recall Election. 11240-11242
    • CHAPTER 4. General Procedures: Final Steps in the Recall
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 11300-11303
      • Article 2. Ballots. 11320-11327
      • Article 3. Elections in General. 11328-11329
      • Article 4. Recall Elections. 11381-11386
  • DIVISION 12. Preelection Procedures
    • CHAPTER 1. Proclamations and Election Orders. 12000-12001
    • CHAPTER 2. Preelection Notices. 12101-12113
    • CHAPTER 3. Precincts
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 12200
      • Article 2. Precinct Formation. 12220-12225
      • Article 3. Precinct Consolidations. 12241
      • Article 4. Precinct Boundary Changes. 12260-12262
      • Article 5. Polling Places. 12280-12288
    • CHAPTER 4. Precinct Boards
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 12300-12327
  • DIVISION 13. Ballots, Sample Ballots, and Voter Pamphlets
    • CHAPTER 1. Purchasing Procedures. 13000-13006
    • CHAPTER 2. Forms of Ballots: Ballot Order. 13100-13121
    • CHAPTER 3. Ballot Printing Specifications
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 13200-13220
      • Article 2. Allowable Changes in Ballot Format and Printing. 13230-13233
      • Article 3. Vote Tabulating Devices. 13240-13247
      • Article 4. Punchcards. 13260-13267
      • Article 5. Voting Machines. 13282-13289
    • CHAPTER 4. Sample Ballots and Voter Pamphlets. 13300-13317
  • DIVISION 14. Election Day Procedures
    • CHAPTER 1. Privileges of Voters. 14000-14003
    • CHAPTER 1.5. Rights of Voters. 14025-14032
    • CHAPTER 2. Precinct Supplies. 14100-14113
    • CHAPTER 3. Procedures at Polls
      • Article 1. Election Day Posting Requirements. 14200-14203
      • Article 2. Election Day Procedures. 14210-14227
      • Article 3. Challenging a Voter. 14240-14253
      • Article 4. Issuing Ballots and Voting. 14270-14300
      • Article 5. Provisional Voting. 14310-14313
    • CHAPTER 4. Closing of the Polls
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 14400-14405
      • Article 2. Elections Using Voting Systems. 14420-14421
      • Article 3. Return of Supplies to the Clerk. 14430-14435
      • Article 4. Snap Tallies. 14440-14443
  • DIVISION 15. Semifinal Official Canvass, Official Canvass, Recount, and Tie Vote Procedures
    • CHAPTER 1. Preparation for Canvass. 15000-15004
    • CHAPTER 2. Vote by Mail Ballot Processing. 15100-15112
    • CHAPTER 3. Semifinal Official Canvass
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 15150-15154
      • Article 2. Automated Count in a Central Location. 15200-15213
      • Article 3. Automated Vote Count in Precincts. 15250-15251
      • Article 4. Establishing Election Return Centers and Multiple Counting Centers. 15260-15261
      • Article 5. Manual Vote Count in the Precinct. 15270-15281
      • Article 6. Manual Vote Count in a Central Place. 15290
    • CHAPTER 4. Official Canvass
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 15300-15304
      • Article 2. Processing Vote by Mail Ballots and Mail Ballot Precinct Ballots. 15320-15321
      • Article 3. Processing Write-in Votes. 15340-15342
      • Article 4. Processing and Counting Provisional Ballots. 15350
      • Article 5. One Percent Manual Tally. 15360
      • Article 6. Ballot Security and Reporting of Results. 15370-15376
    • CHAPTER 5. Announcement of Results. 15400-15402
    • CHAPTER 6. Determination of Elected or Nominated Candidates
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 15450-15452
      • Article 2. Democratic Central Committee Conditions for Election of Candidate. 15460
      • Article 3. Republican Central Committee Conditions for Election of Candidate. 15470
      • Article 4. American Independent Central Committee Conditions for Election of Candidate. 15480
      • Article 5. Peace and Freedom Central Committee Conditions for Election of Candidate. 15490
    • CHAPTER 7. Duties of the Secretary of State. 15500-15505
    • CHAPTER 8. Disposition of Ballots and Supplies by the Elections Official. 15550-15551
    • CHAPTER 8.5. Postcanvass Risk-limiting Audit Pilot Program. 15560
    • CHAPTER 9. Recount
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 15600-15601
      • Article 2. Elections Official-ordered Recounts. 15610
      • Article 3. Voter-requested Recounts. 15620-15634
      • Article 4. Court-ordered Recounts. 15640-15642
    • CHAPTER 10. Tie Votes
      • Article 1. Elections other than Primary Elections. 15650-15654
      • Article 2. At Primary Elections. 15670-15673
    • CHAPTER 11. Extension of Deadlines. 15700-15702
  • DIVISION 16. Elections Contests
    • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 16000-16003
    • CHAPTER 2. Grounds for Contest. 16100-16101
    • CHAPTER 3. Contests at General Elections. 16200-16204
    • CHAPTER 4. Contests at Primary Elections. 16300
    • CHAPTER 5. Form of Contest Statement
      • Article 1. General Elections. 16400-16404
      • Article 2. Primary Elections. 16420-16421
      • Article 3. Contests other than Recount. 16440-16444
      • Article 4. Contests Involving a Recount. 16460-16467
    • CHAPTER 6. Elections Official's Duties
      • Article 1. Contest Procedures at General Elections. 16500-16503
      • Article 2. Contest Procedures at Primary Elections: Contests other than Recount. 16520-16521
      • Article 3. Contest Procedures at Primary Elections: Involving a Recount. 16540
    • CHAPTER 7. Court's Duties
      • Article 1. General Elections. 16600-16603
      • Article 2. Primary Elections: Contests other than Recount. 16620
      • Article 3. Primary Elections: Contests Involving a Recount. 16640-16643
    • CHAPTER 8. Court's Decisions, Judgment, and Determinations
      • Article 1. General Elections. 16700-16703
      • Article 2. Primary Elections: other than Recount. 16720
      • Article 3. Primary Elections: Involving a Recount. 16740-16742
    • CHAPTER 9. Costs. 16800-16803
    • CHAPTER 10. Appeals
      • Article 1. General Elections. 16900
      • Article 2. Primary Elections: other than a Recount. 16920
      • Article 3. Primary Elections: Involving a Recount. 16940
  • DIVISION 17. Retention and Preservation of Election Records
    • CHAPTER 1. Affidavits of Registration and Voter Registration Indexes. 17000-17001
    • CHAPTER 2. Nomination Documents. 17100
    • CHAPTER 3. Initiative and Referendum Petitions. 17200
    • CHAPTER 4. Precinct Supplies and Ballots. 17300-17306
    • CHAPTER 5. Recall Petitions. 17400
    • CHAPTER 6. Miscellaneous Provisions. 17501-17506
  • DIVISION 18. Penal Provisions
    • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 18000-18002
    • CHAPTER 2. Voter Registration. 18100-18112
    • CHAPTER 3. Nomination of Candidates. 18200-18205
    • CHAPTER 4. Election Campaigns
      • Article 1. Campaign Literature. 18301-18304
      • Article 2. Political Party Caucuses. 18310-18311
      • Article 3. Deceptive Online Activities. 18320-18323
      • Article 4. Political Meetings. 18340
      • Article 5. Misrepresentation by Candidates. 18350-18351
      • Article 6. Solicitation of Funds. 18360-18361
      • Article 7. Electioneering. 18370-18371
      • Article 8. Vandalism at Polling Places. 18380
      • Article 9. Misuse of State Publications. 18390
    • CHAPTER 5. Ballots. 18400-18403
    • CHAPTER 6. Corruption of the Voting Process
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 18500-18502
      • Article 2. Corruption of Voters. 18520-18524
      • Article 3. Intimidation of Voters. 18540-18548
      • Article 4. Corruption of Voting. 18560-18578
    • CHAPTER 7. Initiative, Referendum, and Recall
      • Article 1. Improper Signature-gathering Tactics. 18600-18604
      • Article 2. False or Ineligible Signatures on Petition. 18610-18614
      • Article 3. Improper Payments to Prevent Petition Circulation and Filing. 18620-18622
      • Article 4. Threats and Theft to Prevent Petition Circulation and Filing. 18630-18631
      • Article 5. Refusal of Circulators to Turn in Petitions. 18640
      • Article 6. Misuse of Signatures on Petition. 18650
      • Article 7. False Affidavits Concerning Petitions. 18660-18661
      • Article 8. Filing Petitions to Defeat an Initiative or Referendum. 18670-18671
      • Article 9. Misuse of Campaign Funds. 18680
    • CHAPTER 8. Obligations of Precinct Board. 18700
  • DIVISION 19. Approval of Voting Systems
    • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 19001-19005
    • CHAPTER 2. Secretary of State Requirements. 19100-19103
    • CHAPTER 3. Approval of Voting Systems
      • Article 1. Procedures for Approval of Voting Systems. 19200-19217
      • Article 2. Inspection of Approved Voting Systems. 19220-19223
      • Article 2.5. Accessible Voting Systems. 19225-19229.5
      • Article 3. Voting Modernization Bond Act of 2002 (shelley-hertzberg Act). 19230-19245
      • Article 4. Direct Recording Electronic Voting Systems. 19250-19255
    • CHAPTER 4. Elections Using Voting Machines
      • Article 1. General Provisions. 19300-19304
      • Article 2. Pre-election Procedures. 19320-19323
      • Article 3. Precincts and Board Members. 19340-19341
      • Article 4. Procedures at the Polls. 19360-19363
      • Article 5. Closing the Polls. 19370-19371
      • Article 6. Counting Procedures. 19380-19386
  • DIVISION 20. Election Campaigns
    • CHAPTER 1. Endorsements of Candidates. 20000-20010
    • CHAPTER 2. Political Corporations
      • Article 1. Incorporation. 20100
    • CHAPTER 3. Campaign Funds
      • Article 1. Solicitation. 20200-20203
    • CHAPTER 4. Limitations on the Use of Surplus Campaign Funds. 20301
    • CHAPTER 5. Fair Campaign Practices
      • Article 1. General Intent. 20400
      • Article 2. Definitions. 20420
      • Article 3. Code of Fair Campaign Practices. 20440-20444
    • CHAPTER 6. Libel and Slander. 20500-20502
  • DIVISION 21. State and Local Reapportionment
    • CHAPTER 1. General Provisions. 21000-21002
    • CHAPTER 2. Senate Districts. 21100-21140
    • CHAPTER 3. Assembly Districts. 21200-21280
    • CHAPTER 4. Board of Equalization Districts. 21300-21304
    • CHAPTER 5. Congressional Districts. 21400-21453
    • CHAPTER 6. Supervisorial Districts. 21500-21506
    • CHAPTER 7. City Elections
      • Article 1. General Law Cities. 21600-21606
      • Article 2. Chartered Cities. 21620-21620.1
    • CHAPTER 8. Special Districts. 22000

DIVISION 0.5
Preliminary Provisions

CHAPTER 1
General Provisions.

Section 1

This act shall be known as the Elections Code.

Section 2

The provisions of this code, insofar as they are substantially the same as existing statutory provisions relating to the same subject matter, shall be construed as restatements and continuations, and not as new enactments.

Section 3

If any provision of this code or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the code and the application of that provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

Section 4

Unless the provision or the context otherwise requires, these general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions shall govern the construction of this code.

Section 5

Division, part, chapter, article, and section headings do not in any manner affect the scope, meaning, or intent of this code.

Section 6

Whenever a power is granted to, or a duty is imposed upon, a public officer, the power may be exercised or the duty may be performed by a deputy of the officer or by a person authorized, pursuant to law, by the officer, unless this code expressly provides otherwise.

Section 7

Writing includes any form of recorded message capable of comprehension by ordinary visual means. Whenever any notice, report, statement or record is required or authorized by this code, it shall be made in writing in the English language unless it is expressly provided otherwise.

Section 8

As used in this code, the present tense includes the past and future tenses, and the future the present; the masculine gender includes the feminine; and the singular includes the plural, and the plural, the singular.

Section 9

(a) Counting of words, for purposes of this code, shall be as follows:

(1) Punctuation is not counted.

(2) Each word shall be counted as one word except as specified in this section.

(3) All geographical names shall be considered as one word; for example, "City and County of San Francisco" shall be counted as one word.

(4) Each abbreviation for a word, phrase, or expression shall be counted as one word.

(5) Hyphenated words that appear in any generally available standard reference dictionary, published in the United States at any time within the 10 calendar years immediately preceding the election for which the words are counted, shall be considered as one word. Each part of all other hyphenated words shall be counted as a separate word.

(6) Dates consisting of a combination of words and digits shall be counted as two words. Dates consisting only of a combination of digits shall be counted as one word.

(7) Any number consisting of a digit or digits shall be considered as one word. Any number which is spelled, such as "one," shall be considered as a separate word or words. "One" shall be counted as one word whereas "one hundred" shall be counted as two words. "100" shall be counted as one word.

(8) Telephone numbers shall be counted as one word.

(9) Internet web site addresses shall be counted as one word.

(b) This section shall not apply to counting words for ballot designations under Section 13107.

Section 10

The Secretary of State is the chief elections officer of the state, and has the powers and duties specified in Section 12172.5 of the Government Code.

Section 11

On written call of the Secretary of State, the county elections officials, city elections officials, and registrars of voters of this state may meet with the approval of their legislative bodies, at the time and place within this state designated in the call, to discuss matters affecting the administration of the election laws and to promote uniformity of procedure in those matters. Meetings shall not exceed three in any calendar year. Any deputy of a county elections official, city elections official, or registrar of voters, designated for the purpose by his or her principal, may attend these meetings, alone or with his or her principal. The actual and necessary expenses of the county elections official, city elections official, or registrar of voters, and of a deputy, incurred in traveling to and from meetings and in attending the same, for each officer for any one meeting, shall be a charge of the county or city of the elections official or registrar, and payable as other county or city charges.

Section 12

Whenever any candidate files a declaration of candidacy, nomination paper, or any other paper evidencing an intention to be a candidate for any public office at any election in this state with either the Secretary of State or a county elections official, the candidate shall by the filing irrevocably appoint the Secretary of State or the county elections official with whom the filing is made, and their successors in office, the candidate's attorneys upon whom all process in any action or proceeding against him or her concerning his or her candidacy or the election laws may be served with the same effect as if the candidate had been lawfully served with process. The appointment shall continue until the day of the election.

If in any action or proceeding arising out of or in connection with any matters concerning his or her candidacy or the election laws it is shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of a court or judge that personal service of process against the candidate cannot be made with the exercise of due diligence, the court or judge may make an order that the service be made upon the candidate by delivering by hand to the Secretary of State or the county elections official appointed as the candidate's attorney for service of process, or to any person employed in his or her office in the capacity of assistant or deputy, one copy of the process for the defendant to be served, together with a copy of the order authorizing the service. Service in this manner constitutes personal service upon the candidate. The Secretary of State and the county elections officials of all counties shall keep a record of all process served upon them under this section, and shall record therein the time of service and their action with reference thereto.

Upon the receipt of service of process the Secretary of State or the county elections official shall immediately give notice of the service of the process to the candidate by forwarding the copy of the process to the candidate at the address shown on his or her declaration, nomination paper, affidavit, or other evidence of intention to be a candidate filed with that officer, by special delivery registered mail with request for return receipt.

Section 13

(a) No person shall be considered a legally qualified candidate for any office, for party nomination for a partisan office, or for nomination to participate in the general election for any voter-nominated office, under the laws of this state unless that person has filed a declaration of candidacy or statement of write-in candidacy with the proper official for the particular election or primary, or is entitled to have his or her name placed on a general election ballot by reason of having been nominated at a primary election, or having been selected to fill a vacancy on the general election ballot as provided in Section 8806, or having been selected as an independent candidate pursuant to Section 8304.

(b) Nothing in this section shall be construed as preventing or prohibiting any qualified voter of this state from casting a ballot for any person by writing the name of that person on the ballot, or from having that ballot counted or tabulated, nor shall any provision of this section be construed as preventing or prohibiting any person from standing or campaigning for any elective office by means of a "write-in" campaign. However, nothing in this section shall be construed as an exception to the requirements of Section 15341.

(c) It is the intent of the Legislature, in enacting this section, to enable the Federal Communications Commission to determine who is a "legally qualified candidate" in this state for the purposes of administering Section 315 of Title 47 of the United States Code.