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TITLE XXIII

MOTOR VEHICLES

Last update: 2013-11-01


  • State Uniform Traffic Control
  • Off-Highway Vehicle Titling
  • Disposition Of Traffic Infractions
  • Title Certificates
  • Motor Vehicle Licenses
  • Highway Patrol
  • Driver Licenses
  • Wrecker Operators
  • Financial Responsibility
  • Version 2013-11-01
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  • Version 2011-11-08
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  • Version 2011-04-19

Chapter 316

STATE UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL

316.001 - Short title

This chapter may be known and cited as the “Florida Uniform Traffic Control Law.”


History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135.

316.002 - Purpose

It is the legislative intent in the adoption of this chapter to make uniform traffic laws to apply throughout the state and its several counties and uniform traffic ordinances to apply in all municipalities. The Legislature recognizes that there are conditions which require municipalities to pass certain other traffic ordinances in regulation of municipal traffic that are not required to regulate the movement of traffic outside of such municipalities. Section 316.008 enumerates the area within which municipalities may control certain traffic movement or parking in their respective jurisdictions. This section shall be supplemental to the other laws or ordinances of this chapter and not in conflict therewith. It is unlawful for any local authority to pass or to attempt to enforce any ordinance in conflict with the provisions of this chapter.


History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135.

316.003 - Definitions

The following words and phrases, when used in this chapter, shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them in this section, except where the context otherwise requires:
  • (1) AUTHORIZED EMERGENCY VEHICLES.- Vehicles of the fire department (fire patrol), police vehicles, and such ambulances and emergency vehicles of municipal departments, public service corporations operated by private corporations, the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Health, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Corrections as are designated or authorized by their respective department or the chief of police of an incorporated city or any sheriff of any of the various counties.

  • (2) BICYCLE.- Every vehicle propelled solely by human power, and every motorized bicycle propelled by a combination of human power and an electric helper motor capable of propelling the vehicle at a speed of not more than 20 miles per hour on level ground upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels, and including any device generally recognized as a bicycle though equipped with two front or two rear wheels. The term does not include such a vehicle with a seat height of no more than 25 inches from the ground when the seat is adjusted to its highest position or a scooter or similar device. No person under the age of 16 may operate or ride upon a motorized bicycle.

  • (3) BUS.- Any motor vehicle designed for carrying more than 10 passengers and used for the transportation of persons and any motor vehicle, other than a taxicab, designed and used for the transportation of persons for compensation.

  • (4) BUSINESS DISTRICT.- The territory contiguous to, and including, a highway when 50 percent or more of the frontage thereon, for a distance of 300 feet or more, is occupied by buildings in use for business.

  • (5) CANCELLATION.- Cancellation means that a license which was issued through error or fraud is declared void and terminated. A new license may be obtained only as permitted in this chapter.

  • (6) CROSSWALK.-

    • (a) That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway.

    • (b) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.

  • (7) DAYTIME.- The period from a half hour before sunrise to a half hour after sunset. Nighttime means at any other hour.

  • (8) DEPARTMENT.- The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles as defined in s. 20.24. Any reference herein to Department of Transportation shall be construed as referring to the Department of Transportation, defined in s. 20.23, or the appropriate division thereof.

  • (9) DIRECTOR.- The Director of the Division of the Florida Highway Patrol of the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.

  • (10) DRIVER.- Any person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or who is exercising control of a vehicle or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.

  • (11) EXPLOSIVE.- Any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, friction, concussion, percussion, or detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effect on contiguous objects or of destroying life or limb.

  • (12) FARM TRACTOR.- Any motor vehicle designed and used primarily as a farm implement for drawing plows, mowing machines, and other implements of husbandry.

  • (13) FLAMMABLE LIQUID.- Any liquid which has a flash point of 70 degrees Fahrenheit or less, as determined by a Tagliabue or equivalent closed-cup test device.

  • (14) GROSS WEIGHT.- The weight of a vehicle without load plus the weight of any load thereon.

  • (15) HOUSE TRAILER.-

    • (a) A trailer or semitrailer which is designed, constructed, and equipped as a dwelling place, living abode, or sleeping place (either permanently or temporarily) and is equipped for use as a conveyance on streets and highways, or

    • (b) A trailer or a semitrailer the chassis and exterior shell of which is designed and constructed for use as a house trailer, as defined in paragraph (a), but which is used instead, permanently or temporarily, for the advertising, sales, display, or promotion of merchandise or services or for any other commercial purpose except the transportation of property for hire or the transportation of property for distribution by a private carrier.

  • (16) IMPLEMENT OF HUSBANDRY.- Any vehicle designed and adapted exclusively for agricultural, horticultural, or livestock-raising operations or for lifting or carrying an implement of husbandry and in either case not subject to registration if used upon the highways.

  • (17) INTERSECTION.-

    • (a) The area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines; or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict.

    • (b) Where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection. In the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection.

  • (18) LANED HIGHWAY.- A highway the roadway of which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

  • (19) LIMITED ACCESS FACILITY.- A street or highway especially designed for through traffic and over, from, or to which owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement, or only a limited right or easement, of access, light, air, or view by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such limited access facility or for any other reason. Such highways or streets may be parkways from which trucks, buses, and other commercial vehicles are excluded; or they may be freeways open to use by all customary forms of street and highway traffic.

  • (20) LOCAL AUTHORITIES.- Includes all officers and public officials of the several counties and municipalities of this state.

  • (21) MOTOR VEHICLE.- Except when used in s. 316.1001, a self-propelled vehicle not operated upon rails or guideway, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, swamp buggy, or moped. For purposes of s. 316.1001, “motor vehicle” has the same meaning as in s. 320.01(1)(a).

  • (22) MOTORCYCLE.- Any motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding a tractor or a moped.

  • (23) OFFICIAL TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES.- All signs, signals, markings, and devices, not inconsistent with this chapter, placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic.

  • (24) OFFICIAL TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL.- Any device, whether manually, electrically, or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed.

  • (25) OPERATOR.- Any person who is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon the highway, or who is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.

  • (26) OWNER.- A person who holds the legal title of a vehicle, or, in the event a vehicle is the subject of an agreement for the conditional sale or lease thereof with the right of purchase upon performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee or lessee, or in the event a mortgagor of a vehicle is entitled to possession, then such conditional vendee, or lessee, or mortgagor shall be deemed the owner, for the purposes of this chapter.

  • (27) PARK OR PARKING.- The standing of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading merchandise or passengers as may be permitted by law under this chapter.

  • (28) PEDESTRIAN.- Any person afoot.

  • (29) PERSON.- Any natural person, firm, copartnership, association, or corporation.

  • (30) PNEUMATIC TIRE.- Any tire in which compressed air is designed to support the load.

  • (31) POLE TRAILER.- Any vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn by another vehicle and attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach or pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing vehicle, and ordinarily used for transporting long or irregularly shaped loads such as poles, pipes, or structural members capable, generally, of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.

  • (32) POLICE OFFICER.- Any officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations, including Florida highway patrol officers, sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, and municipal police officers.

  • (33) PRIVATE ROAD OR DRIVEWAY.- Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (53)(b), any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.

  • (34) RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS.- Any materials or combination of materials which emit ionizing radiation spontaneously in which the radioactivity per gram of material, in any form, is greater than 0.002 microcuries.

  • (35) RAILROAD.- A carrier of persons or property upon cars operated upon stationary rails.

  • (36) RAILROAD SIGN OR SIGNAL.- Any sign, signal, or device erected by authority of a public body or official, or by a railroad, and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train.

  • (37) RAILROAD TRAIN.- A steam engine, electric or other motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails, except a streetcar.

  • (38) RESIDENCE DISTRICT.- The territory contiguous to, and including, a highway, not comprising a business district, when the property on such highway, for a distance of 300 feet or more, is, in the main, improved with residences or residences and buildings in use for business.

  • (39) REVOCATION.- Revocation means that a licensee’s privilege to drive a motor vehicle is terminated. A new license may be obtained only as permitted by law.

  • (40) RIGHT-OF-WAY.- The right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction, speed, and proximity as to give rise to danger of collision unless one grants precedence to the other.

  • (41) ROAD TRACTOR.- Any motor vehicle designed and used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon, either independently or as any part of the weight of a vehicle or load so drawn.

  • (42) ROADWAY.- That portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder. In the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term “roadway” as used herein refers to any such roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively.

  • (43) SADDLE MOUNT; FULL MOUNT.- An arrangement whereby the front wheels of one vehicle rest in a secured position upon another vehicle. All of the wheels of the towing vehicle are upon the ground, and only the rear wheels of the towed vehicle rest upon the ground. Such combinations may include one full mount, whereby a smaller transport vehicle is placed completely on the last towed vehicle.

  • (44) SAFETY ZONE.- The area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and protected or so marked by adequate signs or authorized pavement markings as to be plainly visible at all times while set apart as a safety zone.

  • (45) SCHOOL BUS.- Any motor vehicle that complies with the color and identification requirements of chapter 1006 and is used to transport children to or from public or private school or in connection with school activities, but not including buses operated by common carriers in urban transportation of school children. The term “school” includes all preelementary, elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schools.

  • (46) SEMITRAILER.- Any vehicle with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon, or is carried by, another vehicle.

  • (47) SIDEWALK.- That portion of a street between the curbline, or the lateral line, of a roadway and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians.

  • (48) SPECIAL MOBILE EQUIPMENT.- Any vehicle not designed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or property and only incidentally operated or moved over a highway, including, but not limited to, ditchdigging apparatus, well-boring apparatus, and road construction and maintenance machinery, such as asphalt spreaders, bituminous mixers, bucket loaders, tractors other than truck tractors, ditchers, leveling graders, finishing machines, motor graders, road rollers, scarifiers, earthmoving carryalls and scrapers, power shovels and draglines, and self-propelled cranes and earthmoving equipment. The term does not include house trailers, dump trucks, truck-mounted transit mixers, cranes or shovels, or other vehicles designed for the transportation of persons or property to which machinery has been attached.

  • (49) STAND OR STANDING.- The halting of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily, for the purpose of, and while actually engaged in, receiving or discharging passengers, as may be permitted by law under this chapter.

  • (50) STATE ROAD.- Any highway designated as a state-maintained road by the Department of Transportation.

  • (51) STOP.- When required, complete cessation from movement.

  • (52) STOP OR STOPPING.- When prohibited, any halting, even momentarily, of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or to comply with the directions of a law enforcement officer or traffic control sign or signal.

  • (53) STREET OR HIGHWAY.-

    • (a) The entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place of whatever nature when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular traffic;

    • (b) The entire width between the boundary lines of any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons, or any limited access road owned or controlled by a special district, whenever, by written agreement entered into under s. 316.006(2)(b) or (3)(b), a county or municipality exercises traffic control jurisdiction over said way or place;

    • (c) Any area, such as a runway, taxiway, ramp, clear zone, or parking lot, within the boundary of any airport owned by the state, a county, a municipality, or a political subdivision, which area is used for vehicular traffic but which is not open for vehicular operation by the general public; or

    • (d) Any way or place used for vehicular traffic on a controlled access basis within a mobile home park recreation district which has been created under s. 418.30 and the recreational facilities of which district are open to the general public.

  • (54) SUSPENSION.- Temporary withdrawal of a licensee’s privilege to drive a motor vehicle.

  • (55) THROUGH HIGHWAY.- Any highway or portion thereof on which vehicular traffic is given the right-of-way and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required to yield right-of-way to vehicles on such through highway in obedience to either a stop sign or yield sign, or otherwise in obedience to law.

  • (56) TIRE WIDTH.- Tire width is that width stated on the surface of the tire by the manufacturer of the tire, if the width stated does not exceed 2 inches more than the width of the tire contacting the surface.

  • (57) TRAFFIC.- Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, and vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any street or highway for purposes of travel.

  • (58) TRAILER.- Any vehicle with or without motive power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle.

  • (59) TRUCK.- Any motor vehicle designed, used, or maintained primarily for the transportation of property.

  • (60) TRUCK TRACTOR.- Any motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load so drawn.

  • (61) MIGRANT OR SEASONAL FARM WORKER.- Any person employed in hand labor operations in planting, cultivation, or harvesting agricultural crops.

  • (62) FARM LABOR VEHICLE.- Any vehicle equipped and used for the transportation of nine or more migrant or seasonal farm workers, in addition to the driver, to or from a place of employment or employment-related activities. The term does not include:

    • (a) Any vehicle carrying only members of the immediate family of the owner or driver.

    • (b) Any vehicle being operated by a common carrier of passengers.

    • (c) Any carpool as defined in s. 450.28(3).

  • (63) BICYCLE PATH.- Any road, path, or way that is open to bicycle travel, which road, path, or way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way.

  • (64) CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER.- The head, or his or her designee, of any law enforcement agency which is authorized to enforce traffic laws.

  • (65) CHILD.- A child as defined in s. 39.01, s. 984.03, or s. 985.03.

  • (66) COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.- Any self-propelled or towed vehicle used on the public highways in commerce to transport passengers or cargo, if such vehicle:

    • (a) Has a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more;

    • (b) Is designed to transport more than 15 passengers, including the driver; or

    • (c) Is used in the transportation of materials found to be hazardous for the purposes of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, as amended (49 U.S.C. ss. 1801 et seq.).

    A vehicle that occasionally transports personal property to and from a closed-course motorsport facility, as defined in s. 549.09(1)(a), is not a commercial motor vehicle if it is not used for profit and corporate sponsorship is not involved. As used in this subsection, the term “corporate sponsorship” means a payment, donation, gratuity, in-kind service, or other benefit provided to or derived by a person in relation to the underlying activity, other than the display of product or corporate names, logos, or other graphic information on the property being transported.

  • (67) COURT.- The court having jurisdiction over traffic offenses.

  • (68) GOLF CART.- A motor vehicle designed and manufactured for operation on a golf course for sporting or recreational purposes.

  • (69) HAZARDOUS MATERIAL.- Any substance or material which has been determined by the secretary of the United States Department of Transportation to be capable of imposing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property. This term includes hazardous waste as defined in s. 403.703(13).

  • (70) STRAIGHT TRUCK.- Any truck on which the cargo unit and the motive power unit are located on the same frame so as to form a single, rigid unit.

  • (71) TANDEM TRAILER TRUCK.- Any combination of a truck tractor, semitrailer, and trailer coupled together so as to operate as a complete unit.

  • (72) TANDEM TRAILER TRUCK HIGHWAY NETWORK.- A highway network consisting primarily of four or more lanes, including all interstate highways; highways designated by the United States Department of Transportation as elements of the National Network; and any street or highway designated by the Florida Department of Transportation for use by tandem trailer trucks, in accordance with s. 316.515, except roads on which truck traffic was specifically prohibited on January 6, 1983.

  • (73) TERMINAL.- Any location where:

    • (a) Freight either originates, terminates, or is handled in the transportation process; or

    • (b) Commercial motor carriers maintain operating facilities.

  • (74) TRANSPORTATION.- The conveyance or movement of goods, materials, livestock, or persons from one location to another on any road, street, or highway open to travel by the public.

  • (75) VEHICLE.- Every device, in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.

  • (76) BRAKE HORSEPOWER.- The actual unit of torque developed per unit of time at the output shaft of an engine, as measured by a dynamometer.

  • (77) MOPED.- Any vehicle with pedals to permit propulsion by human power, having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels; with a motor rated not in excess of 2 brake horsepower and not capable of propelling the vehicle at a speed greater than 30 miles per hour on level ground; and with a power-drive system that functions directly or automatically without clutching or shifting gears by the operator after the drive system is engaged. If an internal combustion engine is used, the displacement may not exceed 50 cubic centimeters.

  • (78) NONPUBLIC SECTOR BUS.- Any bus which is used for the transportation of persons for compensation and which is not owned, leased, operated, or controlled by a municipal, county, or state government or a governmentally owned or managed nonprofit corporation.

  • (79) WORK ZONE AREA.- The area and its approaches on any state-maintained highway, county-maintained highway, or municipal street where construction, repair, maintenance, or other street-related or highway-related work is being performed or where one or more lanes is closed to traffic.

  • (80) MAXI-CUBE VEHICLE.- A specialized combination vehicle consisting of a truck carrying a separable cargo-carrying unit combined with a semitrailer designed so that the separable cargo-carrying unit is to be loaded and unloaded through the semitrailer. The entire combination may not exceed 65 feet in length, and a single component of that combination may not exceed 34 feet in length.

  • (81) TANDEM AXLE.- Any two axles whose centers are more than 40 inches but not more than 96 inches apart and are individually attached to or articulated from, or both, a common attachment to the vehicle, including a connecting mechanism designed to equalize the load between axles.

  • (82) MOTORIZED SCOOTER.- Any vehicle not having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider, designed to travel on not more than three wheels, and not capable of propelling the vehicle at a speed greater than 30 miles per hour on level ground.

  • (83) ELECTRIC PERSONAL ASSISTIVE MOBILITY DEVICE.- Any self-balancing, two-nontandem-wheeled device, designed to transport only one person, with an electric propulsion system with average power of 750 watts (1 horsepower), the maximum speed of which, on a paved level surface when powered solely by such a propulsion system while being ridden by an operator who weighs 170 pounds, is less than 20 miles per hour. Electric personal assistive mobility devices are not vehicles as defined in this section.

  • (84) TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION SYSTEM.- Any system or device with the capability of activating a control mechanism mounted on or near traffic signals which alters a traffic signal’s timing cycle.

  • (85) VICTIM SERVICES PROGRAMS.- Any community-based organization whose primary purpose is to act as an advocate for the victims and survivors of traffic crashes and for their families. The victims services offered by these programs may include grief and crisis counseling, assistance with preparing victim compensation claims excluding third-party legal action, or connecting persons with other service providers, and providing emergency financial assistance.

  • (86) MOTOR CARRIER TRANSPORTATION CONTRACT.-

    • (a) A contract, agreement, or understanding covering:

      • 1. The transportation of property for compensation or hire by the motor carrier;

      • 2. Entrance on property by the motor carrier for the purpose of loading, unloading, or transporting property for compensation or hire; or

      • 3. A service incidental to activity described in subparagraph 1. or subparagraph 2., including, but not limited to, storage of property.

    • (b) “Motor carrier transportation contract” does not include the Uniform Intermodal Interchange and Facilities Access Agreement administered by the Intermodal Association of North America or other agreements providing for the interchange, use, or possession of intermodal chassis, containers, or other intermodal equipment.

  • (87) TRAFFIC INFRACTION DETECTOR.- A vehicle sensor installed to work in conjunction with a traffic control signal and a camera or cameras synchronized to automatically record two or more sequenced photographic or electronic images or streaming video of only the rear of a motor vehicle at the time the vehicle fails to stop behind the stop bar or clearly marked stop line when facing a traffic control signal steady red light. Any notification under s. 316.0083(1)(b) or traffic citation issued by the use of a traffic infraction detector must include a photograph or other recorded image showing both the license tag of the offending vehicle and the traffic control device being violated.

  • (88) TRI-VEHICLE.- An enclosed three-wheeled passenger vehicle that:

    • (a) Is designed to operate with three wheels in contact with the ground;

    • (b) Has a minimum unladen weight of 900 pounds;

    • (c) Has a single, completely enclosed, occupant compartment;

    • (d) Is produced in a minimum quantity of 300 in any calendar year;

    • (e) Is capable of a speed greater than 60 miles per hour on level ground; and

    • (f) Is equipped with:

      • 1. Seats that are certified by the vehicle manufacturer to meet the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 207, “Seating systems” (49 C.F.R. s. 571.207);

      • 2. A steering wheel used to maneuver the vehicle;

      • 3. A propulsion unit located forward or aft of the enclosed occupant compartment;

      • 4. A seat belt for each vehicle occupant certified to meet the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209, “Seat belt assemblies” (49 C.F.R. s. 571.209);

      • 5. A windshield and an appropriate windshield wiper and washer system that are certified by the vehicle manufacturer to meet the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 205, “Glazing Materials” (49 C.F.R. s. 571.205) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 104, “Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems” (49 C.F.R. s. 571.104); and

      • 6. A vehicle structure certified by the vehicle manufacturer to meet the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 216, “Rollover crush resistance” (49 C.F.R. s. 571.216).

  • (89) SWAMP BUGGY.- A motorized off-road vehicle that is designed or modified to travel over swampy or varied terrain and that may use large tires or tracks operated from an elevated platform. The term does not include any vehicle defined in chapter 261 or otherwise defined or classified in this chapter.

  • (90) AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE.- Any vehicle equipped with autonomous technology. The term “autonomous technology” means technology installed on a motor vehicle that has the capability to drive the vehicle on which the technology is installed without the active control or monitoring by a human operator. The term excludes a motor vehicle enabled with active safety systems or driver assistance systems, including, without limitation, a system to provide electronic blind spot assistance, crash avoidance, emergency braking, parking assistance, adaptive cruise control, lane keep assistance, lane departure warning, or traffic jam and queuing assistant, unless any such system alone or in combination with other systems enables the vehicle on which the technology is installed to drive without the active control or monitoring by a human operator.

  • (91) LOCAL HEARING OFFICER.- The person, designated by a department, county, or municipality that elects to authorize traffic infraction enforcement officers to issue traffic citations under s. 316.0083(1)(a), who is authorized to conduct hearings related to a notice of violation issued pursuant to s. 316.0083. The charter county, noncharter county, or municipality may use its currently appointed code enforcement board or special magistrate to serve as the local hearing officer. The department may enter into an interlocal agreement to use the local hearing officer of a county or municipality.

History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 72-179; s. 1, ch. 74-213; s. 1, ch. 76-286; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 1, ch. 80-316; s. 23, ch. 82-186; s. 1, ch. 83-68; s. 1, ch. 83-164; s. 1, ch. 83-188; s. 1, ch. 83-298; s. 1, ch. 84-284; s. 9, ch. 85-309; s. 2, ch. 87-88; s. 5, ch. 87-161; s. 1, ch. 87-178; s. 1, ch. 87-270; s. 3, ch. 88-91; s. 2, ch. 88-93; s. 4, ch. 88-130; s. 63, ch. 89-282; s. 3, ch. 91-418; s. 8, ch. 94-306; s. 893, ch. 95-148; s. 1, ch. 95-247; s. 26, ch. 98-280; s. 2, ch. 98-308; s. 86, ch. 99-13; s. 80, ch. 99-248; s. 5, ch. 99-385; s. 41, ch. 2000-152; ss. 67, 133, ch. 2002-20; s. 955, ch. 2002-387; s. 27, ch. 2005-164; s. 1, ch. 2005-177; s. 1, ch. 2006-81; s. 5, ch. 2006-290; s. 1, ch. 2007-210; s. 62, ch. 2008-4; s. 1, ch. 2008-179; s. 2, ch. 2010-80; s. 1, ch. 2010-223; s. 8, ch. 2010-225; s. 11, ch. 2012-88; s. 2, ch. 2012-111; ss. 15, 106, ch. 2012-174; s. 2, ch. 2012-181; s. 4, ch. 2013-160.

316.006 - Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction to control traffic is vested as follows:
  • (1) STATE.- The Department of Transportation shall have all original jurisdiction over all state roads throughout this state, including those within the grounds of all state institutions and the boundaries of all dedicated state parks, and may place and maintain such traffic control devices which conform to its manual and specifications upon all such highways as it shall deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this chapter or to regulate, warn, or guide traffic.

  • (2) MUNICIPALITIES.-

    • (a) Chartered municipalities shall have original jurisdiction over all streets and highways located within their boundaries, except state roads, and may place and maintain such traffic control devices which conform to the manual and specifications of the Department of Transportation upon all streets and highways under their original jurisdiction as they shall deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this chapter or to regulate, warn, or guide traffic.

    • (b) A municipality may exercise jurisdiction over any private road or roads, or over any limited access road or roads owned or controlled by a special district, located within its boundaries if the municipality and party or parties owning or controlling such road or roads provide, by written agreement approved by the governing body of the municipality, for municipal traffic control jurisdiction over the road or roads encompassed by such agreement. Pursuant thereto:

      • 1. Provision for reimbursement for actual costs of traffic control and enforcement and for liability insurance and indemnification by the party or parties, and such other terms as are mutually agreeable, may be included in such an agreement.

      • 2. The exercise of jurisdiction provided for herein shall be in addition to jurisdictional authority presently exercised by municipalities under law, and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit or remove any such jurisdictional authority. Such jurisdiction includes regulation of access to such road or roads by security devices or personnel.

      • 3. Any such agreement may provide for the installation of multiparty stop signs by the parties controlling the roads covered by the agreement if a determination is made by such parties that the signage will enhance traffic safety. Multiparty stop signs must conform to the manual and specifications of the Department of Transportation; however, minimum traffic volumes may not be required for the installation of such signage. Enforcement for the signs shall be as provided in s. 316.123.

      • 4. The board of directors of a homeowners’ association as defined in chapter 720 may, by majority vote, elect to have state traffic laws enforced by local law enforcement agencies on private roads that are controlled by the association.

    • (c) Notwithstanding any other provisions of law to the contrary, a municipality may, by interlocal agreement with a county, agree to transfer traffic regulatory authority over areas within the municipality to the county.

    This subsection shall not limit those counties which have the charter powers to provide and regulate arterial, toll, and other roads, bridges, tunnels, and related facilities from the proper exercise of those powers by the placement and maintenance of traffic control devices which conform to the manual and specifications of the Department of Transportation on streets and highways located within municipal boundaries.

  • (3) COUNTIES.-

    • (a) Counties shall have original jurisdiction over all streets and highways located within their boundaries, except all state roads and those streets and highways specified in subsection (2), and may place and maintain such traffic control devices which conform to the manual and specifications of the Department of Transportation upon all streets and highways under their original jurisdiction as they shall deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this chapter or to regulate, warn, or guide traffic.

    • (b) A county may exercise jurisdiction over any private road or roads, or over any limited access road or roads owned or controlled by a special district, located in the unincorporated area within its boundaries if the county and party or parties owning or controlling such road or roads provide, by written agreement approved by the governing body of the county, for county traffic control jurisdiction over the road or roads encompassed by such agreement. Pursuant thereto:

      • 1. Provision for reimbursement for actual costs of traffic control and enforcement and for liability insurance and indemnification by the party or parties, and such other terms as are mutually agreeable, may be included in such an agreement.

      • 2. Prior to entering into an agreement which provides for enforcement of the traffic laws of the state over a private road or roads, or over any limited access road or roads owned or controlled by a special district, the governing body of the county shall consult with the sheriff. No such agreement shall take effect prior to October 1, the beginning of the county fiscal year, unless this requirement is waived in writing by the sheriff.

      • 3. The exercise of jurisdiction provided for herein shall be in addition to jurisdictional authority presently exercised by counties under law, and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit or remove any such jurisdictional authority.

      • 4. Any such agreement may provide for the installation of multiparty stop signs by the parties controlling the roads covered by the agreement if a determination is made by such parties that the signage will enhance traffic safety. Multiparty stop signs must conform to the manual and specifications of the Department of Transportation; however, minimum traffic volumes may not be required for the installation of such signage. Enforcement for the signs shall be as provided in s. 316.123.

      • 5. The board of directors of a homeowners’ association as defined in chapter 720 may, by majority vote, elect to have state traffic laws enforced by local law enforcement agencies on private roads that are controlled by the association.

    • (c) If the governing body of a county abandons the roads and rights-of-way dedicated in a recorded residential subdivision, and simultaneously conveys the county’s interest therein to a homeowners’ association for the subdivision in the manner prescribed in s. 336.125, that county’s traffic control jurisdiction over the abandoned and conveyed roads ceases unless the requirements of paragraph (b) are met.

    Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2), each county shall have original jurisdiction to regulate parking, by resolution of the board of county commissioners and the erection of signs conforming to the manual and specifications of the Department of Transportation, in parking areas located on property owned or leased by the county, whether or not such areas are located within the boundaries of chartered municipalities.

  • (4) LEGISLATIVE DECLARATION.- The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the exercise by an authority of the powers conferred by written agreement pursuant to the provisions of chapter 87-88, Laws of Florida, serves a valid public purpose and function for which public credit may be pledged and public money may be expended.

History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 71-982; s. 2, ch. 79-246; ss. 1, 3, ch. 87-88; s. 32, ch. 94-306; s. 101, ch. 2002-20; s. 1, ch. 2002-235; s. 1, ch. 2005-34; s. 2, ch. 2005-164; s. 6, ch. 2006-290; s. 43, ch. 2007-5.

316.007 - Provisions uniform throughout state

The provisions of this chapter shall be applicable and uniform throughout this state and in all political subdivisions and municipalities therein, and no local authority shall enact or enforce any ordinance on a matter covered by this chapter unless expressly authorized. However, this section shall not prevent any local authority from enacting an ordinance when such enactment is necessary to vest jurisdiction of violation of this chapter in the local court.


History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 2, ch. 71-982.

316.0075 - Operator use of commercial mobile radio services and electronic communications devices

Regulation of operator or passenger use of commercial mobile radio services and other electronic communications devices in a motor vehicle is expressly preempted to the state.


History.- s. 2, ch. 2002-179.

316.0076 - Regulation and use of cameras

Regulation of the use of cameras for enforcing the provisions of this chapter is expressly preempted to the state. The regulation of the use of cameras for enforcing the provisions of this chapter is not required to comply with provisions of chapter 493.


History.- s. 3, ch. 2010-80.

316.008 - Powers of local authorities

  • (1) The provisions of this chapter shall not be deemed to prevent local authorities, with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction and within the reasonable exercise of the police power, from:

    • (a) Regulating or prohibiting stopping, standing, or parking.

    • (b) Regulating traffic by means of police officers or official traffic control devices.

    • (c) Regulating or prohibiting processions or assemblages on the streets or highways, including all state or federal highways lying within their boundaries.

    • (d) Designating particular highways or roadways for use by traffic moving in one direction.

    • (e) Establishing speed limits for vehicles in public parks.

    • (f) Designating any street as a through street or designating any intersection as a stop or yield intersection.

    • (g) Restricting the use of streets.

    • (h) Regulating the operation of bicycles.

    • (i) Regulating or prohibiting the turning of vehicles or specified types of vehicles.

    • (j) Altering or establishing speed limits within the provisions of this chapter.

    • (k) Requiring written crash reports.

    • (l) Designating no-passing zones.

    • (m) Prohibiting or regulating the use of controlled access roadways by any class or kind of traffic.

    • (n) Prohibiting or regulating the use of heavily traveled streets by any class or kind of traffic found to be incompatible with the normal and safe movement of traffic.

    • (o) Designating hazardous railroad grade crossings in conformity to criteria promulgated by the Department of Transportation.

    • (p) Designating and regulating traffic on play streets.

    • (q) Prohibiting pedestrians from crossing a roadway in a business district or any designated highway except on a crosswalk.

    • (r) Regulating pedestrian crossings at unmarked crosswalks.

    • (s) Regulating persons upon skates, coasters, and other toy vehicles.

    • (t) Adopting and enforcing such temporary or experimental regulations as may be necessary to cover emergencies or special conditions.

    • (u) Enacting ordinances or erecting signs in the rights-of-way to control, regulate, or prohibit hitchhiking on streets or highways, including all state or federal highways lying within their boundaries.

    • (v) Regulating, restricting, or prohibiting traffic within the boundary of any airport owned by the state, a county, a municipality, or a political subdivision and enforcing violations under the provisions of this chapter and chapter 318.

    • (w) Regulating, restricting, or monitoring traffic by security devices or personnel on public streets and highways, whether by public or private parties and providing for the construction and maintenance of such streets and highways.

  • (2) The municipality, through its duly authorized officers, shall have nonexclusive jurisdiction over the prosecution, trial, adjudication, and punishment of violations of this chapter when a violation occurs within the municipality and the person so charged is charged by a municipal police officer. The disposition of such matters in the municipality shall be in accordance with the charter of that municipality. This subsection does not limit those counties which have the charter power to provide and regulate arterial, toll, and other roads, bridges, tunnels, and related facilities from the proper exercise of those powers pertaining to the consolidation and unification of a traffic court system within such counties.

  • (3) No local authority shall erect or maintain any official traffic control device at any location so as to regulate the traffic on any state road unless approval in writing has first been obtained from the Department of Transportation.

  • (4) A county or municipality may enact an ordinance providing a fine for the violation of s. 316.1955 in excess of the fine specified by s. 318.18(6), except that such a fine may not exceed $250. Any such ordinance may provide for the deposit of such fines in a separate county or municipal account to be used in the following manner:

    • (a) One-third to be used to defray expenses for the administration of this subsection.

    • (b) Two-thirds to be used to provide funds to improve accessibility and equal opportunity to qualified persons who have disabilities in the county or municipality and to provide funds to conduct public awareness programs in the county or municipality concerning persons who have disabilities.

  • (5)(a) A county or municipality may enact an ordinance providing a fine for the violation of s. 316.1945(1)(b)2. or 5. in excess of the fine specified by s. 318.18(2), except that such fine may not exceed the fine specified in s. 318.18(2) by more than $3. However, such ordinance shall provide that the fines collected pursuant to this subsection in excess of the fines which would be collected pursuant to s. 318.18(2) for such violations shall be used by the county or municipality for the purpose of funding a firefighter education program. The amount of the fines collected pursuant to this subsection in excess of the fines which would be collected pursuant to s. 318.18(2) for such violations shall be reported on a monthly basis by the clerk of the court to the appropriate county or municipality.

    • (b) A county or municipality may enact an ordinance which dedicates a portion of any fine collected for a violation of such ordinance for the purpose of funding a firefighter education program, if such ordinance is limited to the regulation of parking within a firesafety zone.

  • (6) A county or municipality may enact an ordinance providing for the establishment of a “combat automobile theft” program, and may charge a fee for the administration of the program and the cost of the decal. Such a program shall include:

    • (a) Consent forms for motor vehicle owners who wish to enroll their vehicles.

    • (b) Decals indicating a vehicle’s enrollment in the “combat automobile theft” program. The Department of Law Enforcement shall approve the color, design, and other specifications of the program decal.

    • (c) A consent form signed by a motor vehicle owner provides authorization for a law enforcement officer to stop the vehicle when it is being driven between the hours of 1 a.m. and 5 a.m., provided that a decal is conspicuously affixed to the bottom left corner of the back window of the vehicle to provide notice of its enrollment in the “combat automobile theft” program. The owner of the motor vehicle is responsible for removing the decal when terminating participation in the program, or when selling or otherwise transferring ownership of the vehicle. No civil liabilities will arise from the actions of a law enforcement officer when stopping a vehicle with a yellow decal evidencing enrollment in the program when the driver is not enrolled in the program provided that the stop is made in accordance with the requirements of the “combat automobile theft” program.

  • (7) A county or municipality may enact an ordinance to permit, control, or regulate the operation of vehicles, golf carts, mopeds, motorized scooters, and electric personal assistive mobility devices on sidewalks or sidewalk areas when such use is permissible under federal law. The ordinance must restrict such vehicles or devices to a maximum speed of 15 miles per hour in such areas.

  • (8)(a) A county or municipality may use traffic infraction detectors to enforce s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when a driver fails to stop at a traffic signal on streets and highways under its jurisdiction under s. 316.0083. Only a municipality may install or authorize the installation of any such detectors within the incorporated area of the municipality. Only a county may install or authorize the installation of any such detectors within the unincorporated area of the county.

    • (b) Pursuant to paragraph (a), a municipality may install or, by contract or interlocal agreement, authorize the installation of any such detectors only within the incorporated area of the municipality, and a county may install or, by contract or interlocal agreement, authorize the installation of any such detectors only within the unincorporated area of the county. A county may authorize installation of any such detectors by interlocal agreement on roads under its jurisdiction.

    • (c) Pursuant to s. 316.0083, a county or municipality may use traffic infraction detectors to enforce s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when a driver fails to stop at a traffic signal on state roads under the original jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation when permitted by the Department of Transportation.

History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 3, ch. 71-982; s. 1, ch. 76-72; s. 2, ch. 83-164; s. 1, ch. 84-234; s. 1, ch. 85-227; s. 1, ch. 85-325; s. 3, ch. 86-154; s. 1, ch. 89-34; s. 25, ch. 90-330; s. 1, ch. 93-30; s. 33, ch. 94-306; s. 1, ch. 96-200; s. 4, ch. 96-350; s. 81, ch. 99-248; s. 4, ch. 2010-80; s. 1, ch. 2010-163; s. 44, ch. 2010-223; s. 16, ch. 2011-4.

316.0083 - Mark Wandall Traffic Safety Program; administration; report

  • (1)(a) For purposes of administering this section, the department, a county, or a municipality may authorize a traffic infraction enforcement officer under s. 316.640 to issue a traffic citation for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. A notice of violation and a traffic citation may not be issued for failure to stop at a red light if the driver is making a right-hand turn in a careful and prudent manner at an intersection where right-hand turns are permissible. A notice of violation and a traffic citation may not be issued under this section if the driver of the vehicle came to a complete stop after crossing the stop line and before turning right if permissible at a red light, but failed to stop before crossing over the stop line or other point at which a stop is required. This paragraph does not prohibit a review of information from a traffic infraction detector by an authorized employee or agent of the department, a county, or a municipality before issuance of the traffic citation by the traffic infraction enforcement officer. This paragraph does not prohibit the department, a county, or a municipality from issuing notification as provided in paragraph (b) to the registered owner of the motor vehicle involved in the violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1.




      • (b)1.a. Within 30 days after a violation, notification must be sent to the registered owner of the motor vehicle involved in the violation specifying the remedies available under s. 318.14 and that the violator must pay the penalty of $158 to the department, county, or municipality, or furnish an affidavit in accordance with paragraph (d), or request a hearing within 60 days following the date of the notification in order to avoid the issuance of a traffic citation. The notification must be sent by first-class mail. The mailing of the notice of violation constitutes notification.

      • b. Included with the notification to the registered owner of the motor vehicle involved in the infraction must be a notice that the owner has the right to review the photographic or electronic images or the streaming video evidence that constitutes a rebuttable presumption against the owner of the vehicle. The notice must state the time and place or Internet location where the evidence may be examined and observed.

      • c. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person who receives a notice of violation under this section may request a hearing within 60 days following the notification of violation or pay the penalty pursuant to the notice of violation, but a payment or fee may not be required before the hearing requested by the person. The notice of violation must be accompanied by, or direct the person to a website that provides, information on the person’s right to request a hearing and on all court costs related thereto and a form to request a hearing. As used in this sub-subparagraph, the term “person” includes a natural person, registered owner or coowner of a motor vehicle, or person identified on an affidavit as having care, custody, or control of the motor vehicle at the time of the violation.

      • d. If the registered owner or coowner of the motor vehicle, or the person designated as having care, custody, or control of the motor vehicle at the time of the violation, or an authorized representative of the owner, coowner, or designated person, initiates a proceeding to challenge the violation pursuant to this paragraph, such person waives any challenge or dispute as to the delivery of the notice of violation.

    • 2. Penalties assessed and collected by the department, county, or municipality authorized to collect the funds provided for in this paragraph, less the amount retained by the county or municipality pursuant to subparagraph 3., shall be paid to the Department of Revenue weekly. Payment by the department, county, or municipality to the state shall be made by means of electronic funds transfers. In addition to the payment, summary detail of the penalties remitted shall be reported to the Department of Revenue.

    • 3. Penalties to be assessed and collected by the department, county, or municipality are as follows:

      • a. One hundred fifty-eight dollars for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when a driver failed to stop at a traffic signal if enforcement is by the department’s traffic infraction enforcement officer. One hundred dollars shall be remitted to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the General Revenue Fund, $10 shall be remitted to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the Department of Health Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund, $3 shall be remitted to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Trust Fund, and $45 shall be distributed to the municipality in which the violation occurred, or, if the violation occurred in an unincorporated area, to the county in which the violation occurred. Funds deposited into the Department of Health Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund under this sub-subparagraph shall be distributed as provided in s. 395.4036(1). Proceeds of the infractions in the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Trust Fund shall be distributed quarterly to the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis and used for brain and spinal cord research.

      • b. One hundred fifty-eight dollars for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when a driver failed to stop at a traffic signal if enforcement is by a county or municipal traffic infraction enforcement officer. Seventy dollars shall be remitted by the county or municipality to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the General Revenue Fund, $10 shall be remitted to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the Department of Health Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund, $3 shall be remitted to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Trust Fund, and $75 shall be retained by the county or municipality enforcing the ordinance enacted pursuant to this section. Funds deposited into the Department of Health Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund under this sub-subparagraph shall be distributed as provided in s. 395.4036(1). Proceeds of the infractions in the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Trust Fund shall be distributed quarterly to the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis and used for brain and spinal cord research.

    • 4. An individual may not receive a commission from any revenue collected from violations detected through the use of a traffic infraction detector. A manufacturer or vendor may not receive a fee or remuneration based upon the number of violations detected through the use of a traffic infraction detector.




      • (c)1.a. A traffic citation issued under this section shall be issued by mailing the traffic citation by certified mail to the address of the registered owner of the motor vehicle involved in the violation if payment has not been made within 60 days after notification under paragraph (b), if the registered owner has not requested a hearing as authorized under paragraph (b), or if the registered owner has not submitted an affidavit under this section.

      • b. Delivery of the traffic citation constitutes notification under this paragraph. If the registered owner or coowner of the motor vehicle, or the person designated as having care, custody, or control of the motor vehicle at the time of the violation, or a duly authorized representative of the owner, coowner, or designated person, initiates a proceeding to challenge the citation pursuant to this section, such person waives any challenge or dispute as to the delivery of the traffic citation.

      • c. In the case of joint ownership of a motor vehicle, the traffic citation shall be mailed to the first name appearing on the registration, unless the first name appearing on the registration is a business organization, in which case the second name appearing on the registration may be used.

    • 2. Included with the notification to the registered owner of the motor vehicle involved in the infraction shall be a notice that the owner has the right to review, in person or remotely, the photographic or electronic images or the streaming video evidence that constitutes a rebuttable presumption against the owner of the vehicle. The notice must state the time and place or Internet location where the evidence may be examined and observed.


  • (d)1. The owner of the motor vehicle involved in the violation is responsible and liable for paying the uniform traffic citation issued for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when the driver failed to stop at a traffic signal, unless the owner can establish that:

      • a. The motor vehicle passed through the intersection in order to yield right-of-way to an emergency vehicle or as part of a funeral procession;

      • b. The motor vehicle passed through the intersection at the direction of a law enforcement officer;

      • c. The motor vehicle was, at the time of the violation, in the care, custody, or control of another person;

      • d. A uniform traffic citation was issued by a law enforcement officer to the driver of the motor vehicle for the alleged violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1.; or

      • e. The motor vehicle’s owner was deceased on or before the date that the uniform traffic citation was issued, as established by an affidavit submitted by the representative of the motor vehicle owner’s estate or other designated person or family member.

    • 2. In order to establish such facts, the owner of the motor vehicle shall, within 30 days after the date of issuance of the traffic citation, furnish to the appropriate governmental entity an affidavit setting forth detailed information supporting an exemption as provided in this paragraph.

      • a. An affidavit supporting an exemption under sub-subparagraph 1.c. must include the name, address, date of birth, and, if known, the driver license number of the person who leased, rented, or otherwise had care, custody, or control of the motor vehicle at the time of the alleged violation. If the vehicle was stolen at the time of the alleged offense, the affidavit must include the police report indicating that the vehicle was stolen.

      • b. If a traffic citation for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. was issued at the location of the violation by a law enforcement officer, the affidavit must include the serial number of the uniform traffic citation.

      • c. If the motor vehicle’s owner to whom a traffic citation has been issued is deceased, the affidavit must include a certified copy of the owner’s death certificate showing that the date of death occurred on or before the issuance of the uniform traffic citation and one of the following:

        • (I) A bill of sale or other document showing that the deceased owner’s motor vehicle was sold or transferred after his or her death, but on or before the date of the alleged violation.

        • (II) Documentary proof that the registered license plate belonging to the deceased owner’s vehicle was returned to the department or any branch office or authorized agent of the department, but on or before the date of the alleged violation.

        • (III) A copy of a police report showing that the deceased owner’s registered license plate or motor vehicle was stolen after the owner’s death, but on or before the date of the alleged violation.

        Upon receipt of the affidavit and documentation required under this sub-subparagraph, the governmental entity must dismiss the citation and provide proof of such dismissal to the person that submitted the affidavit.

    • 3. Upon receipt of an affidavit, the person designated as having care, custody, or control of the motor vehicle at the time of the violation may be issued a notice of violation pursuant to paragraph (b) for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when the driver failed to stop at a traffic signal. The affidavit is admissible in a proceeding pursuant to this section for the purpose of providing proof that the person identified in the affidavit was in actual care, custody, or control of the motor vehicle. The owner of a leased vehicle for which a traffic citation is issued for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when the driver failed to stop at a traffic signal is not responsible for paying the traffic citation and is not required to submit an affidavit as specified in this subsection if the motor vehicle involved in the violation is registered in the name of the lessee of such motor vehicle.

    • 4. Paragraphs (b) and (c) apply to the person identified on the affidavit, except that the notification under sub-subparagraph (b)1.a. must be sent to the person identified on the affidavit within 30 days after receipt of an affidavit.

    • 5. The submission of a false affidavit is a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

  • (e) The photographic or electronic images or streaming video attached to or referenced in the traffic citation is evidence that a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when the driver failed to stop at a traffic signal has occurred and is admissible in any proceeding to enforce this section and raises a rebuttable presumption that the motor vehicle named in the report or shown in the photographic or electronic images or streaming video evidence was used in violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when the driver failed to stop at a traffic signal.

  • (2) A notice of violation and a traffic citation may not be issued for failure to stop at a red light if the driver is making a right-hand turn in a careful and prudent manner at an intersection where right-hand turns are permissible.

  • (3) This section supplements the enforcement of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. by law enforcement officers when a driver fails to stop at a traffic signal and does not prohibit a law enforcement officer from issuing a traffic citation for a violation of s. 316.074(1) or s. 316.075(1)(c)1. when a driver fails to stop at a traffic signal in accordance with normal traffic enforcement techniques.

  • (4)(a) Each county or municipality that operates a traffic infraction detector shall submit a report by October 1, 2012, and annually thereafter, to the department which details the results of using the traffic infraction detector and the procedures for enforcement for the preceding state fiscal year. The information submitted by the counties and municipalities must include statistical data and information required by the department to complete the report required under paragraph (b).

    • (b) On or before December 31, 2012, and annually thereafter, the department shall provide a summary report to the Governor, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives regarding the use and operation of traffic infraction detectors under this section, along with the department’s recommendations and any necessary legislation. The summary report must include a review of the information submitted to the department by the counties and municipalities and must describe the enhancement of the traffic safety and enforcement programs.

  • (5) Procedures for a hearing under this section are as follows:

    • (a) The department shall publish and make available electronically to each county and municipality a model Request for Hearing form to assist each local government administering this section.

    • (b) The charter county, noncharter county, or municipality electing to authorize traffic infraction enforcement officers to issue traffic citations under paragraph (1)(a) shall designate by resolution existing staff to serve as the clerk to the local hearing officer.

    • (c) Any person, herein referred to as the “petitioner,” who elects to request a hearing under paragraph (1)(b) shall be scheduled for a hearing by the clerk to the local hearing officer to appear before a local hearing officer with notice to be sent by first-class mail. Upon receipt of the notice, the petitioner may reschedule the hearing once by submitting a written request to reschedule to the clerk to the local hearing officer, at least 5 calendar days before the day of the originally scheduled hearing. The petitioner may cancel his or her appearance before the local hearing officer by paying the penalty assessed under paragraph (1)(b), plus $50 in administrative costs, before the start of the hearing.

    • (d) All testimony at the hearing shall be under oath and shall be recorded. The local hearing officer shall take testimony from a traffic infraction enforcement officer and the petitioner, and may take testimony from others. The local hearing officer shall review the photographic or electronic images or the streaming video made available under sub-subparagraph(1)(b)1.b. Formal rules of evidence do not apply, but due process shall be observed and govern the proceedings.

    • (e) At the conclusion of the hearing, the local hearing officer shall determine whether a violation under this section has occurred, in which case the hearing officer shall uphold or dismiss the violation. The local hearing officer shall issue a final administrative order including the determination and, if the notice of violation is upheld, require the petitioner to pay the penalty previously assessed under paragraph (1)(b), and may also require the petitioner to pay county or municipal costs, not to exceed $250. The final administrative order shall be mailed to the petitioner by first-class mail.

    • (f) An aggrieved party may appeal a final administrative order consistent with the process provided under s. 162.11.

  • History.- s. 5, ch. 2010-80; s. 98, ch. 2012-174; ss. 3, 74, ch. 2012-181; s. 43, ch. 2013-15; s. 5, ch. 2013-160.

    316.00831 - Distribution of penalties collected under s. 316.0083(1)(b)

    The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles or any county or municipality authorized to issue a notification and impose a penalty under s. 316.0083(1)(b) that collects any such penalty after the effective date of this act, but prior to notification by the Department of Revenue of its ability to receive and distribute the penalties collected, must retain the portion of the penalty required to be remitted to the Department of Revenue until the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, county, or municipality is notified by the Department of Revenue that it is able to receive and distribute the retained funds. The portion of the penalty required to be remitted to the Department of Revenue for any penalty collected after such notification is provided to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, county, or municipality must be remitted to the Department of Revenue as provided in s. 316.0083. This section shall take effect upon this act becoming a law.


    History.- s. 15, ch. 2010-80.

    316.0085 - Skateboarding; inline skating; freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling; paintball; definitions; liability

    • (1) The purpose of this section is to encourage governmental owners or lessees of property to make land available to the public for skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, and freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling. It is recognized that governmental owners or lessees of property have failed to make property available for such activities because of the exposure to liability from lawsuits and the prohibitive cost of insurance, if insurance can be obtained for such activities. It is also recognized that risks and dangers are inherent in these activities, which risks and dangers should be assumed by those participating in such activities.

    • (2) As used in this section, the term:

      • (a) “Governmental entity” means:

        • 1. The United States, the State of Florida, any county or municipality, or any department, agency, or other instrumentality thereof.

        • 2. Any school board, special district, authority, or other entity exercising governmental authority.

      • (b) “Inherent risk” means those dangers or conditions that are characteristic of, intrinsic to, or an integral part of skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, and freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling.

    • (3) This section does not grant authority or permission for a person to engage in skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling on property owned or controlled by a governmental entity unless such governmental entity has specifically designated such area for skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling. Each governmental entity shall post a rule in each specifically designated area that identifies all authorized activities and indicates that a child under 17 years of age may not engage in any of those activities until the governmental entity has obtained written consent, in a form acceptable to the governmental entity, from the child’s parents or legal guardians.

    • (4) A governmental entity or public employee is not liable to any person who voluntarily participates in skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling for any damage or injury to property or persons which arises out of a person’s participation in such activity, and which takes place in an area designated for such activity.

    • (5) This section does not limit liability that would otherwise exist for any of the following:

      • (a) The failure of the governmental entity or public employee to guard against or warn of a dangerous condition of which a participant does not and cannot reasonably be expected to have notice.

      • (b) An act of gross negligence by the governmental entity or public employee that is the proximate cause of the injury.

      • (c) The failure of a governmental entity that provides a designated area for skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling to obtain the written consent, in a form acceptable to the governmental entity, from the parents or legal guardians of any child under 17 years of age before authorizing such child to participate in skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling in such designated area, unless that child’s participation is in violation of posted rules governing the authorized use of the designated area, except that a parent or legal guardian must demonstrate that written consent to engage in mountain or off-road bicycling in a designated area was provided to the governmental entity before entering the designated area.

      Nothing in this subsection creates a duty of care or basis of liability for death, personal injury, or damage to personal property. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to be a waiver of sovereign immunity under any circumstances.

    • (6) Nothing in this section shall limit the liability of an independent concessionaire, or any person or organization other than a governmental entity or public employee, whether or not the person or organization has a contractual relationship with a governmental entity to use the public property, for injuries or damages suffered in any case as a result of the operation of skateboards, inline skates, paintball equipment, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycles on public property by the concessionaire, person, or organization.

    • (7)(a) Any person who participates in or assists in skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain and off-road bicycling assumes the known and unknown inherent risks in these activities irrespective of age, and is legally responsible for all damages, injury, or death to himself or herself or other persons or property which result from these activities. Any person who observes skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain or off-road bicycling assumes the known and unknown inherent risks in these activities irrespective of age, and is legally responsible for all damages, injury, or death to himself or herself which result from these activities. A governmental entity that sponsors, allows, or permits skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain or off-road bicycling on its property is not required to eliminate, alter, or control the inherent risks in these activities.

      • (b) While engaged in skateboarding, inline skating, paintball, or freestyle or mountain or off-road bicycling, irrespective of where such activities occur, a participant is responsible for doing all of the following:

        • 1. Acting within the limits of his or her ability and the purpose and design of the equipment used.

        • 2. Maintaining control of his or her person and the equipment used.

        • 3. Refraining from acting in any manner which may cause or contribute to death or injury of himself or herself, or other persons.

        Failure to comply with the requirements of this paragraph shall constitute negligence.

    • (8) The fact that a governmental entity carries insurance which covers any act described in this section shall not constitute a waiver of the protections set forth in this section, regardless of the existence or limits of such coverage.

    History.- s. 1, ch. 99-133; s. 1, ch. 2004-288; s. 7, ch. 2006-290.

    316.027 - Crash involving death or personal injuries

    • (1)(a) The driver of any vehicle involved in a crash occurring on public or private property that results in injury of any person must immediately stop the vehicle at the scene of the crash, or as close thereto as possible, and must remain at the scene of the crash until he or she has fulfilled the requirements of s. 316.062. Any person who willfully violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

      • (b) The driver of any vehicle involved in a crash occurring on public or private property that results in the death of any person must immediately stop the vehicle at the scene of the crash, or as close thereto as possible, and must remain at the scene of the crash until he or she has fulfilled the requirements of s. 316.062. A person who is arrested for a violation of this paragraph and who has previously been convicted of a violation of this section, s. 316.061, s. 316.191, or s. 316.193, or a felony violation of s. 322.34, shall be held in custody until brought before the court for admittance to bail in accordance with chapter 903. Any person who willfully violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any person who willfully commits such a violation while driving under the influence as set forth in s. 316.193(1) shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 2 years.

      • (c) Notwithstanding s. 775.089(1)(a), if the driver of a vehicle violates paragraph (a) or paragraph (b), the court shall order the driver to make restitution to the victim for any damage or loss unless the court finds clear and compelling reasons not to order the restitution. Restitution may be monetary or nonmonetary restitution. The court shall make the payment of restitution a condition of probation in accordance with s. 948.03. An order requiring the defendant to make restitution to a victim does not remove or diminish the requirement that the court order payment to the Crimes Compensation Trust Fund under chapter 960. Payment of an award by the Crimes Compensation Trust Fund creates an order of restitution to the Crimes Compensation Trust Fund unless specifically waived in accordance with s. 775.089(1)(b).

    • (2) The department shall revoke the driver’s license of the person so convicted.

    • (3) Every stop must be made without obstructing traffic more than is necessary, and, if a damaged vehicle is obstructing traffic, the driver of the vehicle must make every reasonable effort to move the vehicle or have it moved so as not to obstruct the regular flow of traffic. Any person who fails to comply with this subsection shall be cited for a nonmoving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

    • (4) A person whose commission of a noncriminal traffic infraction or any violation of this chapter or s. 1006.66 causes or results in the death of another person may, in addition to any other civil, criminal, or administrative penalty imposed, be required by the court to serve 120 community service hours in a trauma center or hospital that regularly receives victims of vehicle accidents, under the supervision of a registered nurse, an emergency room physician, or an emergency medical technician pursuant to a voluntary community service program operated by the trauma center or hospital.

    • (5) This section does not apply to crashes occurring during a motorsports event, as defined in s. 549.10(1), or at a closed-course motorsport facility, as defined in s. 549.09(1).

    History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 75-72; s. 5, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 82-161; s. 51, ch. 89-282; s. 1, ch. 93-140; s. 9, ch. 94-306; s. 894, ch. 95-148; s. 5, ch. 96-350; s. 82, ch. 99-248; s. 956, ch. 2002-387; s. 2, ch. 2006-225; s. 2, ch. 2007-211; s. 2, ch. 2011-80.

    316.061 - Crashes involving damage to vehicle or property

    • (1) The driver of any vehicle involved in a crash resulting only in damage to a vehicle or other property which is driven or attended by any person shall immediately stop such vehicle at the scene of such crash or as close thereto as possible, and shall forthwith return to, and in every event shall remain at, the scene of the crash until he or she has fulfilled the requirements of s. 316.062. A person who violates this subsection commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, $5 shall be added to a fine imposed pursuant to this section, which $5 shall be deposited in the Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund.

    • (2) Every stop must be made without obstructing traffic more than is necessary, and, if a damaged vehicle is obstructing traffic, the driver of such vehicle must make every reasonable effort to move the vehicle or have it moved so as not to block the regular flow of traffic. Any person failing to comply with this subsection shall be cited for a nonmoving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

    • (3) Employees or authorized agents of the Department of Transportation, law enforcement with proper jurisdiction, or an expressway authority created pursuant to chapter 348, in the exercise, management, control, and maintenance of its highway system, may undertake the removal from the main traveled way of roads on its highway system of all vehicles incapacitated as a result of a motor vehicle crash and of debris caused thereby. Such removal is applicable when such a motor vehicle crash results only in damage to a vehicle or other property, and when such removal can be accomplished safely and will result in the improved safety or convenience of travel upon the road. The driver or any other person who has removed a motor vehicle from the main traveled way of the road as provided in this section shall not be considered liable or at fault regarding the cause of the accident solely by reason of moving the vehicle.

    History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 3, ch. 74-377; s. 2, ch. 75-72; s. 9, ch. 76-31; s. 22, ch. 85-167; s. 3, ch. 85-337; s. 30, ch. 92-78; s. 296, ch. 95-148; s. 6, ch. 96-350; s. 83, ch. 99-248; s. 3, ch. 2002-235.

    316.062 - Duty to give information and render aid

    • (1) The driver of any vehicle involved in a crash resulting in injury to or death of any person or damage to any vehicle or other property which is driven or attended by any person shall give his or her name, address, and the registration number of the vehicle he or she is driving, and shall upon request and if available exhibit his or her license or permit to drive, to any person injured in such crash or to the driver or occupant of or person attending any vehicle or other property damaged in the crash and shall give such information and, upon request, exhibit such license or permit to any police officer at the scene of the crash or who is investigating the crash and shall render to any person injured in the crash reasonable assistance, including the carrying, or the making of arrangements for the carrying, of such person to a physician, surgeon, or hospital for medical or surgical treatment if it is apparent that treatment is necessary, or if such carrying is requested by the injured person.

    • (2) In the event none of the persons specified are in condition to receive the information to which they otherwise would be entitled under subsection (1), and no police officer is present, the driver of any vehicle involved in such crash, after fulfilling all other requirements of s. 316.027 and subsection (1), insofar as possible on his or her part to be performed, shall forthwith report the crash to the nearest office of a duly authorized police authority and submit thereto the information specified in subsection (1).

    • (3) The statutory duty of a person to make a report or give information to a law enforcement officer making a written report relating to a crash shall not be construed as extending to information which would violate the privilege of such person against self-incrimination.

    • (4) A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

    History.- s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 13, ch. 91-255; s. 297, ch. 95-148; s. 84, ch. 99-248.