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U.S. CODE
TITLE 50
WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

Version 2011-01-07

Last update 2011-12-18


  • COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE
  • BOARD OF ORDNANCE AND FORTIFICATION
  • ALIEN ENEMIES
  • ESPIONAGE
  • PHOTOGRAPHING, SKETCHING, MAPPING, ETC., DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS
  • DISCLOSURE OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION
  • ATOMIC WEAPONS AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS INFORMATION REWARDS
  • ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIAL GENERALLY
    • ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS
    • EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE
    • ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS
  • WILLFUL DESTRUCTION, ETC., OF WAR OR NATIONAL-DEFENSE MATERIAL
  • INTERFERENCE WITH HOMING PIGEONS OWNED BY UNITED STATES
  • EXPLOSIVES; MANUFACTURE, DISTRIBUTION, STORAGE, USE, AND POSSESSION REGULATED
  • AIRCRAFT
  • HELIUM GAS
  • ACQUISITION OF AND EXPENDITURES ON LAND FOR NATIONAL-DEFENSE PURPOSES
  • VESSELS IN TERRITORIAL WATERS OF UNITED STATES
  • INSURRECTION
  • WARTIME VOTING BY LAND AND NAVAL FORCES
  • NATIONAL SECURITY
    • COORDINATION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY
    • MISCELLANEOUS AND CONFORMING PROVISIONS
    • ACCOUNTABILITY FOR INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES
    • PROTECTION OF CERTAIN NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION
    • PROTECTION OF OPERATIONAL FILES
    • ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION
    • APPLICATION OF SANCTIONS LAWS TO INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES
    • EDUCATION IN SUPPORT OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
      • Science and Technology
      • Foreign Languages Program
      • Additional Education Provisions
    • ADDITIONAL MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
  • DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL RESERVES
  • ARMING AMERICAN VESSELS
  • AIR-WARNING SCREEN
  • GUIDED MISSILES
  • WIND TUNNELS
    • CONSTRUCTION OF WIND-TUNNEL FACILITIES
    • AIR ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER
  • ABACA PRODUCTION
  • UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE
    • GENERAL PROVISIONS
    • APPREHENSION AND RESTRAINT
    • NON-JUDICIAL PUNISHMENT
    • COURTS-MARTIAL JURISDICTION
    • APPOINTMENT AND COMPOSITION OF COURTS-MARTIAL
    • PRETRIAL PROCEDURE
    • TRIAL PROCEDURE
    • SENTENCES
    • REVIEW OF COURTS-MARTIAL
    • PUNITIVE ARTICLES
    • MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
  • REPRESENTATION OF ARMED FORCES PERSONNEL BEFORE FOREIGN JUDICIAL TRIBUNALS
  • INTERNAL SECURITY
    • CONTROL OF SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES
    • EMERGENCY DETENTION OF SUSPECTED SECURITY RISKS
    • PERSONNEL SECURITY PROCEDURES IN NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY
    • COMMUNIST CONTROL
    • REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS TRAINED IN FOREIGN ESPIONAGE SYSTEMS
  • NATIONAL DEFENSE FACILITIES
  • ARMED FORCES RESERVE
  • GIFTS FOR DEFENSE PURPOSES
  • RESERVE OFFICER PERSONNEL PROGRAM
  • STATUS OF ARMED FORCES PERSONNEL APPOINTED TO SERVICE ACADEMIES
  • NATIONAL DEFENSE CONTRACTS
  • FEDERAL ABSENTEE VOTING ASSISTANCE
  • ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
  • CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM
  • WAR POWERS RESOLUTION
  • NATIONAL EMERGENCIES
    • TERMINATING EXISTING DECLARED EMERGENCIES
    • DECLARATIONS OF FUTURE NATIONAL EMERGENCIES
    • EXERCISE OF EMERGENCY POWERS AND AUTHORITIES
    • ACCOUNTABILITY AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS OF PRESIDENT
    • APPLICATION TO POWERS AND AUTHORITIES OF OTHER PROVISIONS OF LAW AND ACTIONS TAKEN THEREUNDER
  • INTERNATIONAL EMERGENCY ECONOMIC POWERS
  • FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE
    • ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE
    • PHYSICAL SEARCHES
    • PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP AND TRACE DEVICES FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES
    • ACCESS TO CERTAIN BUSINESS RECORDS FOR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES
    • REPORTING REQUIREMENT
    • ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES REGARDING CERTAIN PERSONS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
    • PROTECTION OF PERSONS ASSISTING THE GOVERNMENT
  • NATIONAL SECURITY SCHOLARSHIPS, FELLOWSHIPS, AND GRANTS
  • CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY
    • DEFINITIONS
    • CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM
      • Establishment of System
      • Contributions
      • Computation of Annuities
      • Benefits Accruing to Certain Participants
      • Lump-Sum Payments
      • Period of Service for Annuities
      • Moneys
      • Retired Participants Recalled, Reinstated, or Reappointed in Agency or Reemployed in Government
      • Voluntary Contributions
      • Cost-of-Living Adjustment of Annuities
      • Conformity With Civil Service Retirement System
    • PARTICIPATION IN FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM
  • SPOILS OF WAR
  • DEFENSE AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
    • DOMESTIC PREPAREDNESS
    • INTERDICTION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND RELATED MATERIALS
    • CONTROL AND DISPOSITION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND RELATED MATERIALS THREATENING THE UNITED STATES
    • COORDINATION OF POLICY AND COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
    • NONPROLIFERATION ASSISTANCE COORDINATION
    • MISCELLANEOUS
  • NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION
    • ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANIZATION
    • MATTERS RELATING TO SECURITY
    • MATTERS RELATING TO PERSONNEL
    • BUDGET AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
    • MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
    • DEFINITIONS
    • TRANSITION PROVISIONS
  • ATOMIC ENERGY DEFENSE PROVISIONS
    • ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS
    • NUCLEAR WEAPONS STOCKPILE MATTERS
      • Stockpile Stewardship and Weapons Production
      • Tritium
    • PROLIFERATION MATTERS
    • ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT MATTERS
      • Environmental Restoration and Waste Management
      • Closure of Facilities
      • Privatization
      • Hanford Reservation, Washington
      • Savannah River Site, South Carolina
    • SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY MATTERS
      • Safeguards and Security
      • Classified Information
      • Emergency Response
    • PERSONNEL MATTERS
      • Personnel Management
      • Education and Training
      • Worker Safety
    • BUDGET AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT MATTERS
      • Recurring National Security Authorization Provisions
      • Penalties
      • Other Matters
    • ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS
      • Contracts
      • Research and Development
      • Facilities Management
      • Other Matters
  • PREVENTING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATION AND TERRORISM
    • PROLIFERATION SECURITY INITIATIVE
    • ASSISTANCE TO ACCELERATE PROGRAMS TO PREVENT WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATION AND TERRORISM
    • OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES COORDINATOR FOR THE PREVENTION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATION AND TERRORISM
  • Version 2011-01-07

CHAPTER 1

COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE

Creation, purpose, and composition of council

A Council of National Defense is established, for the coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare, to consist of the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor.



Advisory commission

The Council of National Defense shall nominate to the President, and the President shall appoint, an advisory commission, consisting of not more than seven persons, each of whom shall have special knowledge of some industry, public utility, or the development of some natural resource, or be otherwise specially qualified, in the opinion of the council, for the performance of the duties hereinafter provided. The members of the advisory commission shall serve without compensation, but shall be allowed actual expenses of travel and subsistence when attending meetings of the commission or engaged in investigations pertaining to its activities. The advisory commission shall hold such meetings as shall be called by the council or be provided by the rules and regulations adopted by the council for the conduct of its work.



Duties of council

It shall be the duty of the Council of National Defense to supervise and direct investigations and make recommendations to the President and the heads of executive departments as to the location of railroads with reference to the frontier of the United States so as to render possible expeditious concentration of troops and supplies to points of defense; the coordination of military, industrial, and commercial purposes in the location of branch lines of railroad; the utilization of waterways; the mobilization of military and naval resources for defense; the increase of domestic production of articles and materials essential to the support of armies and of the people during the interruption of foreign commerce; the development of seagoing transportation; data as to amounts, location, method and means of production, and availability of military supplies; the giving of information to producers and manufacturers as to the class of supplies needed by the military and other services of the Government, the requirements relating thereto, and the creation of relations which will render possible in time of need the immediate concentration and utilization of the resources of the Nation.



Rules and regulations; subordinate bodies and committees

The Council of National Defense shall adopt rules and regulations for the conduct of its work, which rules and regulations shall be subject to the approval of the President, and shall provide for the work of the advisory commission to the end that the special knowledge of such commission may be developed by suitable investigation, research, and inquiry and made available in conference and report for the use of the council; and the council may organize subordinate bodies for its assistance in special investigations, either by the employment of experts or by the creation of committees of specially qualified persons to serve without compensation, but to direct the investigations of experts so employed.



Reports of subordinate bodies and committees; unvouchered expenditures

Reports shall be submitted by all subordinate bodies and by the advisory commission to the council, and from time to time the council shall report to the President or to the heads of executive departments upon special inquiries or subjects appropriate thereto. When deemed proper the President may authorize, in amounts stipulated by him, unvouchered expenditures.



Repealed

Section, act June 5, 1920, ch. 235, 41 Stat. 886, placed a limit on salaries of officers and employees of Council of National Defense.





CHAPTER 2

BOARD OF ORDNANCE AND FORTIFICATION

Repealed

Section 11, act Sept. 22, 1888, ch. 1028, § 1, 25 Stat. 489, related to composition and duties of Board of Ordnance and Fortification.

Section 12, act Feb. 24, 1891, ch. 283, 26 Stat. 769, provided for a civilian member of Board.

Section 13, act Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 803, 31 Stat. 910, provided for additional members of Board.

Section 14, act Feb. 18, 1893, ch. 136, 27 Stat. 461, related to qualifications of Board Members.

Section 15, act Sept. 22, 1888, ch. 1028, § 6, 25 Stat. 490, related to purchases and tests.





CHAPTER 3

ALIEN ENEMIES

Restraint, regulation, and removal

Whenever there is a declared war between the United States and any foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, attempted or threatened against the territory of the United States by any foreign nation or government, and the President makes public proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being of the age of fourteen years and upward, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies. The President is authorized in any such event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the conduct to be observed on the part of the United States, toward the aliens who become so liable; the manner and degree of the restraint to which they shall be subject and in what cases, and upon what security their residence shall be permitted, and to provide for the removal of those who, not being permitted to reside within the United States, refuse or neglect to depart therefrom; and to establish any other regulations which are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety.



Time allowed to settle affairs and depart

When an alien who becomes liable as an enemy, in the manner prescribed in section 21 of this title, is not chargeable with actual hostility, or other crime against the public safety, he shall be allowed, for the recovery, disposal, and removal of his goods and effects, and for his departure, the full time which is or shall be stipulated by any treaty then in force between the United States and the hostile nation or government of which he is a native citizen, denizen, or subject; and where no such treaty exists, or is in force, the President may ascertain and declare such reasonable time as may be consistent with the public safety, and according to the dictates of humanity and national hospitality.



Jurisdiction of United States courts and judges

After any such proclamation has been made, the several courts of the United States, having criminal jurisdiction, and the several justices and judges of the courts of the United States, are authorized and it shall be their duty, upon complaint against any alien enemy resident and at large within such jurisdiction or district, to the danger of the public peace or safety, and contrary to the tenor or intent of such proclamation, or other regulations which the President may have established, to cause such alien to be duly apprehended and conveyed before such court, judge, or justice; and after a full examination and hearing on such complaint, and sufficient cause appearing, to order such alien to be removed out of the territory of the United States, or to give sureties for his good behavior, or to be otherwise restrained, conformably to the proclamation or regulations established as aforesaid, and to imprison, or otherwise secure such alien, until the order which may be so made shall be performed.



Duties of marshals

When an alien enemy is required by the President, or by order of any court, judge, or justice, to depart and to be removed, it shall be the duty of the marshal of the district in which he shall be apprehended to provide therefor and to execute such order in person, or by his deputy or other discreet person to be employed by him, by causing a removal of such alien out of the territory of the United States; and for such removal the marshal shall have the warrant of the President, or of the court, judge, or justice ordering the same, as the case may be.



CHAPTER 4

ESPIONAGE